Chicago style for in-text citations, notes, and bibliography

In Chicago style, use superscript numbers (1) to mark citations in the text. Place the superscript number for each note just after the relevant quotation, sentence, clause, or phrase. Type the number after any punctuation mark except the dash; do not leave space before the superscript. Number citations sequentially throughout the text. When you use signal phrases to introduce quotations or other source material, note that Chicago style requires you to use the present tense (citing Beboutís studies, Meier points out. . .).


Sweig argues that Castro and Che Guevara were not the only key players in the Cuban Revolution of the late 1950s.19


19. Julia Sweig, Inside the Cuban Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), 9.


After giving complete information the first time you cite a work, shorten any additional references to that work: list only the authorís name, a comma, a shortened version of the title, a comma, and the page number. If the reference is to the same source cited in the previous note, you can use the Latin abbreviation Ibid. (for ďin the same placeĒ) instead of the name and title.

     19. Julia Sweig, Inside the Cuban Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), 9.
     20. Ibid., 13.
     21. Foner and Lewis, Black Worker, 138–39.
     22. Ferguson, “Comfort of Being Sad,” 63.
     23. Sweig, Cuban Revolution, 21.


The alphabetical list of the sources used is usually titled Bibliography in Chicago style. If Sources Consulted, Works Cited, or Selected Bibliography better describes your list, however, any of these titles is acceptable.

In the bibliographic entry for a source, include the same information as in the first note for that source, but omit the specific page reference. However, give the first authorís name last name first, followed by a comma and the first name; separate the main elements of the entry with periods rather than commas; and do not enclose the publication information for books in parentheses. List sources alphabetically by authorsí last names (or by the first major word in the title if the author is unknown).


Sweig, Julia. Inside the Cuban Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
     Press, 2002.

Start the bibliography on a separate page after the main text and any endnotes. Continue the consecutive numbering of pages. Center the title Bibliography (without italics or quotation marks). Begin each entry at the left margin. Indent subsequent lines of each entry five spaces or one-half inch. Double-space the entire list.