Chapter 17: Chapter Outline
The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the major topics covered in this chapter.
Instructions: Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar.
1. From the early days of
the Republic, Americans advocated a policy of Indian removal that relocated
eastern tribes to west of the
promising that they could remain there permanently.
1. The Sioux staked their
survival on buffalo but, by the nineteenth century, due to various
factors—including Eastern demand for buffalo hides, the coming of the
transcontinental railroad, and the impact of systematic buffalo hunting—the
great herds fell into decline.
1. The practice of
relocating the Indians onto reservations lost momentum in the 1880s in favor of
allotment—a new policy designed to encourage assimilation through farming and
the ownership of private property.
|1. Facing the extinction of
their traditional ways of life, different groups of Indians responded in
different ways in the waning decades of the nineteenth century.
2. The Crow, Arikara, Pawnee, and Shoshoni fought alongside the U.S. army against their old enemies the Sioux in an effort to hold onto their lands.
3. The Nez Perce attempted to flee to Canada to escape confinement on a reservation but surrendered to U.S. army soldiers after a five-day siege.
4. The Apache tribes in the Southwest resorted to armed resistance and perfected a hit-and-run guerrilla warfare that terrorized white settlers and bedeviled the army in the 1870s and 1880s.
5. In the 1880s, Geronimo repeatedly led Apache warrior raiding parties off the reservation, but eventually surrendered to General Nelson Miles.
6. The government arrested nearly 500 Apaches, though fewer than three dozen had been hostile, and sent them as prisoners to Florida, where more than a quarter of them died.
7. In 1892, the Apaches were moved to Fort Sill in Oklahoma and then later to New Mexico.
8. Many tribes turned to a nonviolent form of resistance—the new Ghost Dance religion.
9. Ghost Dances were generally nonviolent, but among the Sioux they took on a militant flavor, prompting President Benjamin Harrison to dispatch several thousand federal troops to Sioux country to handle any outbreak.
10. When Sitting Bull joined the Ghost Dancers in South Dakota in December 1890, he was shot and killed by Indian police as they tried to arrest him at his cabin on the Standing Rock Reservation.
11. A melee ensued, and the army opened fire on the Indians; minutes later, more than two hundred Sioux lay dead or dying in the snow.
12. It took Euro-Americans 250 years to wrest control of the eastern half of the United States from the Indians but took only 40 years to take the western half.
13. The subjugation of the Indian people provided Euro-Americans with empire-building experience that they would later use overseas in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.
1. In 1859, refugees from
California’s gold mines flocked to the Washoe basin in
Nevada, where they found the richest silver ore on the
|1. The federal government
practiced a policy of benign neglect toward territorial government in the West.
2.Because of its mines, Nevada became a state in 1864, but many areas remained territories for decades, during which time they were subject to territorial governors, who were underpaid, often unqualified, and largely ignored by Washington.
3. Territorial governors’ paychecks arrived inconsistently and they frequently had to pay government expenses out of their own pockets.
4. Nearly all territorial appointees tried to make ends meet by maintaining business connections in the East or by investing in the West.
5. Underfunded and overlooked, territorial government was rife with conflicts of interest and corruption, mirroring the political and economic values (or lack thereof) of the late nineteenth century.
|1. Like the big cities of
the East, the West in the late nineteenth century was a widely diverse place
populated by New Englanders, Mormons, African Americans, Mexicans, and Latinos
as well as immigrants from Europe, Asia, and
2. The sheer number of peoples who came together in the West produced a complex blend of racism and prejudice.
3. African Americans who ventured out to the territories faced hostile settlers determined to keep the West for “whites only.”
4. Black “buffalo” soldiers who served in the Indian wars frequently remained as settlers; some founded all black communities such as Nicodemas, Kansas.
5. Hispanics also suffered from discrimination, as fraud, chicanery, and intimidation dispossessed them of their land and forced them into segregated urban barrios.
6. Mormons were another of the West’s oppressed groups, ostracized for their practice of polygamy.
7. The Chinese suffered brutal treatment at the hands of employers and other laborers; by 1870, over 63,000 Chinese immigrants lived in America , but they were denied access to citizenship, paid substandard wages, and scapegoated during the economic depression of the 1870s.
8. In 1876, the Workingman’s Party formed to fight for Chinese exclusion and in 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, effectively barring further Chinese immigration; the predominantly male Chinese population declined, eventually replaced by Japanese immigrants.
9. The American West in the nineteenth century witnessed more than its share of conflict and bloodshed.
10. Violent prejudice against Chinese and other Asian immigrants remained common, but conflicts also broke out between cattle ranchers and sheep ranchers, between ranchers and farmers, between striking miners and their bosses, among rival Indian groups, and between whites and Indians.
1. People who ventured west
faced hardship, loneliness, and deprivation.
|1. Between 1865 and 1885,
cattle ranchers followed the railroads onto the plains, establishing a cattle
2. Barbed wire revolutionized the cattle business: as the largest ranchers in Texas began to build fences, nasty fights broke out with “fence cutters,” who resented the end of the free range.
3. On the range, the cowboys (many of whom were African American) gave way to the cattle king and, like miners, became wage laborers.
4. By 1886, cattle overcrowded the range but severe blizzards during the winters of 1886–87 and 1887–88 decimated the herds; in the aftermath of the storms, new and more labor-intensive forms of cattle ranching replaced the open-range model.
|1. Many who followed the
American promise into the West prospered, but land ownership proved an elusive
goal for freed slaves, immigrants from Europe and Asia, and Mexicans in
California and on the
2. Some freed slaves managed to pull together enough resources to go west, but most remained propertyless farm laborers.
3. In California, skilled horsemen—Mexican cowboys called vaqueros—commanded decent wages until the 1870s, when the coming of the railroads ended the long cattle drives and the need for the vaqueros’ skills, forcing them to become migrant laborers, often on land their families had once owned.
4. After the heyday of cattle ranching ended in the late 1880s, cotton production began its rise in southeastern Texas, and ranch life soon gave way to a growing army of agricultural wageworkers.
5. In California, land monopoly and large-scale farming fostered tenancy and migratory labor.
|1. In the late nineteenth
population remained overwhelmingly rural and new technology and farming
techniques revolutionized American farm life.
2. As the rural population decreased, the number of farms rose and American agriculture entered the era of agribusiness; as farming moved onto the prairies and plains, mechanization took control and farming emerged as a big business.
3. Like cotton farmers in the South, western grain and livestock farmers increasingly depended on foreign markets for their livelihood.
4. Commercial farming, along with mining, represented another way in which the West developed its own brand of industrialism.
5. Two Alsatian immigrants, Henry Miller and Charles Lux, pioneered the West’s mixture of agriculture and business, developing investment strategies and corporate structures to control not only California land but water rights as well.
6. Their company shared the main characteristics of other modern enterprises: corporate consolidation, vertical integration, and schemes to minimize labor costs and stabilize the workforce.
7. By the end of the nineteenth century, agriculture had been transformed: The typical farmer was no longer a self-sufficient yeoman but was tied to global industrial markets as either a businessman or a wage laborer.