Research & Documentation Onine 5th Edition

CSE reference list

The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. (2006).

Basic format Center the title References (or Cited References) and then list the works you have cited in the paper; do not include other works you may have read. Double-space throughout.

Organization of the list In the citation-sequence system, number the entries in the order in which they appear in the text. In the citation-name system, first alphabetize all the entries by authors’ last names (or by organization name or by title for a work with no author). Then number the entries in the order in which they appear in the list. In both systems, use the number in the reference list every time you refer to the corresponding source in the paper. Make the entire entry flush with the left margin.

In the name-year system, the entries in the reference list are not numbered. They are alphabetized by authors’ last names (or by organization name or by title for a work with no author). The year is placed after the last author’s name, followed by a period. To convert the models shown here to the name-year system, omit the number and move the date of publication after the last author’s name. CSE provides no guidelines for formatting a reference list in the name-year system in a student paper, but you can use a hanging indent for readability: Type the first line of each entry flush left, and indent any additional lines one-half inch.

Authors’ names List authors’ names last name first. Use initials for first and middle names, with no periods after the initials and no space between them. Do not use a comma between the last name and the initials. Use all authors’ names if a work has up to ten authors; for a work with eleven or more authors, list the first ten names followed by a comma and “et al.” (for “and others”).

Titles of books and articles Capitalize only the first word in the title of a book or article (and all proper nouns). Do not underline or italicize the titles of books; do not place titles of articles in quotation marks.

Titles of journals Abbreviate titles of journals that consist of more than one word. Omit the words the and of; do not use apostrophes. Capitalize all the words or abbreviated words in the title; do not underline or italicize the title: Science, Sci Am, N Engl J Med, Womens Health.

Page ranges Do not abbreviate page ranges for articles in journals or periodicals and for chapters in edited volumes. When an article appears on discontinuous pages, list all pages or page ranges, separated by commas: 145-149, 162-174. For chapters in edited volumes, use the abbreviation “p.” before the numbers (p. 63-90).




Books

1. Basic format for a book After the author(s) and title, give the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication.


1. Melchias G. Biodiversity and conservation. Enfield (NH): Science; 2001.


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2. Two or more authors List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. For a work with two to ten authors, list all the authors. For eleven or more authors, list the first ten followed by “et al.” (for “and others”).


2. Ennos R, Sheffield E. Plant life. Boston: Blackwell Scientific; 2000.


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3. Edition other than the first Include the number of the edition after the title.


3. Mai J, Paxinos G, Assheuer J. Atlas of the human brain. 2nd ed. Burlington (MA): Elsevier; 2004.


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4. Article or chapter in an edited volume Begin with the name of the author and the title of the article or chapter. Then write “In:” and name the editor or editors, followed by a comma and the word “editor” or “editors.” Place the title of the book and publication information next. End with the page numbers on which the article or chapter appears.


4. Underwood AJ, Chapman MG. Intertidal ecosystems. In: Levin SA, editor. Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Vol. 3. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p. 485-499.


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Articles

5. Article in a magazine Provide the year, month, and day (for weekly publications), followed by the page numbers of the article.


5. Stevens MH. Heavenly harbingers. Smithsonian. 2001 Nov:20, 22.


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6. Article in a journal After the author(s) and the title of the article, give the journal title, the year, the volume number, the issue number if there is one (in parentheses), and the page numbers on which the article appears.


6. Gulbins E, Lang F. Pathogens, host-cell invasion and disease. Am Sci. 2001;89(5):406-413.


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7. Article in a newspaper After the name of the newspaper, give the edition name in parentheses, the date of publication, the section letter (or number), the page number, and the column number. If the newspaper does not have section designations, use a colon between the date and the page number.


7. O’Neil J. A closer look at medical marijuana. New York Times (National Ed.). 2001 Jul 17;Sect. D:6 (col. 4).


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8. Article with multiple authors For a work with up to ten authors, list the names of all authors. For a work with eleven or more authors, list the first ten names followed by a comma and “et al.” (for “and others”).


8. Longini IM Jr, Halloran ME, Nizam A, Yang Y. Containing pandemic influenza with antiviral agents. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(7):623-633.


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9. Article with a corporate author When a work has a corporate author, begin with the authoring organization, followed by the article title, journal title, and all other publication information.


9. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Clinical trial registration: a statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. JAMA. 2004;292(11):1363-1364.

In the name-year system, a familiar abbreviation for an organization is given in brackets at the beginning of the entry: [NCI] National Cancer Institute. 2004. The abbreviation is used in the in-text citation: (NCI 2004).


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Electronic sources

CSE guidelines for Web sites and subscription services require publication information as for books: city, publisher, and publication date. This information can usually be found on the home page of a Web site and in a copyright link in a subscription service. Ask a reference librarian if you have trouble locating the information. In addition, include an update date if one is available and your date of access. Do not use a period at the end of a URL unless the URL ends in a slash.


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10. Home page of a Web site Begin with the author, whether an individual or an organization. Include the title of the home page (if it is different from the author’s name), followed in brackets by the word “Internet.” Provide the place of publication, the publisher (or the site’s sponsor), and the date of publication. Include the copyright date if no date of publication is given or if the publication date and the copyright date are different: 2010, c2009. Include in brackets the date the page was last modified or updated and the date you accessed the site: [modified 2009 Mar 14; cited 2010 Feb 3]. Use the phrase “Available from:” followed by the URL.


10. American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy [Internet]. Milwaukee (WI): The Society; c2000-2010 [modified 2010 Jan 8; cited 2010 Jan 16]. Available from: http://www.asgt.org/.


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11. Short work from a Web site If the short work does not have an author or if the author is the same as the author of the site, begin the citation as for a home page. After the publication information, give the title of the short work, the date of publication or most recent update, if available, and the date of access. Indicate in brackets the number or estimated number of pages, screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes: about 5 p., about 3 screens, 12 paragraphs, 26 lines, 125K bytes. End the citation with the phrase “Available from:” followed by the URL.


11. Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center [Internet]. Cleveland (OH): The Clinic; c2006. Smoking cessation; 2009 [cited 2010 Feb 8]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/services/smoking_cessation/hic_quitting_smoking.aspx

If the short work has an author different from the author of the site, begin with the author and title of the short work, followed by the word “In:” and the home page information as in item 10. End with the URL for the short work.


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12. Online book To cite an online book, follow the instructions for a home page, but include the description “Internet” in brackets following the title.


12. Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world [Internet]. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press; 3rd ed. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press; c2005 [cited 2007 Oct 14]; [about 200 screens]. Available from: http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/msw/.

If you are referring to a specific chapter or section in an online book, begin the citation with the author and the title of the specific part. Follow with the word “In:” and the author, editor, title, and publication information for the entire book. End with access information about the specific part.


12. Olson S. The path to a PhD. In: Jarmul D, editor. Beyond bio 101: the transformation of undergraduate biology education [Internet]. Chevy Chase (MD): Howard Hughes Medical Institute; c2001 [cited 2009 Nov 19]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/beyondbio101/phdpath.htm


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13. Article in an online periodical Begin with the name of the author and the title of the article. Include the name of the journal, followed by the word “Internet” in brackets. Give the date of publication or the copyright date. Include in brackets the date the article was updated or modified, if any, and the date you accessed it, followed by a semicolon. Then provide the volume, issue, and page numbers. If the article is unpaginated, include in brackets the number or an estimated number of pages, screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes. Write “Available from:” and the URL.


13. Isaacs FJ, Blake WJ, Collins JJ. Signal processing in single cells. Science [Internet]. 2005 Mar 25 [cited 2009 Jun 17];307(5717): 1886-1888. Available from: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/307/5717/1886


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14. Work from a subscription service CSE does not provide guidelines for an article accessed through a subscription service, such as InfoTrac or EBSCOhost. The guidelines presented here are based on CSE’s models for an article in an online periodical and for a complete database.

Begin with information about the online article, as in item 13. Follow with the name of the database, the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication or the copyright date. End with the phrase “Available from:” followed by the URL for the database. Include an article or document number, if the database assigns one, after the URL.


14. Cantor RM, Kono N, Duvall JA, Alvarez-Retuerto A, Stone JL, Alarcon M, Nelson SF, Geschwind DH. Replication of autism linkage: fine-mapping peak at 17q21. Am J Hum Genet [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2009 Jun 17];76(6):1050-1056. Expanded Academic ASAP. Farmington Hills (MI): Thomson Gale; c2005. Available from: http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com/. Document No.: A133015879.


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15. E-mail CSE recommends not including personal communications such as e-mail in the reference list. A parenthetical note in the text usually suffices: (2010 e-mail to me; unreferenced).


 

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16. Online posting Online postings include messages to e-mail discussion lists (often called Listservs), Web forums, newsgroups, or bulletin boards. CSE does not provide guidelines for including postings in the reference list, but the following formatting is consistent with other CSE advice. Begin with the author initiating the message and the subject line of the message. Next use the word “In:” followed by the name of the host system and in brackets the phrase “discussion list on the Internet.” Give the place where the discussion list is issued and the individual or organization that hosts the discussion list. Provide the date and time the message was posted, the date you accessed it, and the length of the message in screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes. End with the phrase “Available from:” followed by the e-mail address by which the list can be accessed or the URL at which the list is archived.


16. Buxbaum E. Bradford protein assay in membrane crystals. In: BIOSCI/Bionet: protein-analysis [discussion list on the Internet]. Bloomington: Indiana University; 2005 Jan 26, 10:45 am [cited 2005 Jun 22]; [about 16 lines]. Available from: http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/2005-January/000010.html


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Other sources (print and online)

The advice in this section refers to the print versions of the following sources, but in each case an example is also given for an online version.

17. Government report Begin with the name of the agency and, in parentheses, the country of origin if it is not part of the agency name. Next include the title of the report, a description of the report (if any), the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. Give any relevant identifying information, such as a document number, and then the phrase “Available from:” followed by the name, city, and state of the organization that makes the report available or the URL for an online source.


17. National Institute on Drug Abuse (US). Inhalant abuse. Research Report Series. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2005 Mar. NIH Pub. No.: 00–3818. Available from: National Clearinghouse on Alcohol and Drug Information, Rockville, MD 20852.

17. National Institute on Drug Abuse (US). Inhalant abuse [Internet]. Research Report Series. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2005 Mar [cited 2005 Jun 23]; [about 13 screens]. NIH Pub. No.: 00-3818. Available from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Inhalants/Inhalants.html

In the name-year system, begin with the abbreviation of the organization, if any, in brackets. (You will use the abbreviation in your in-text citations.) Use the complete name of the organization when you alphabetize the reference list.


[NIDA] National Institute on Drug Abuse (US). 2005 Mar. Inhalant abuse. . . .

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18. Report from a private organization Begin with the name of the sponsoring organization. Next include the title of the report, a description of the report, the place of publication, the publisher, the year and month of publication, and the product number (if any).


18. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for African Americans 2005-2006. Report. Atlanta (GA): The Society; 2005.

18. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for African Americans 2005-2006 [report on the Internet]. Atlanta (GA): The Society; 2005 [cited 2005 Jun 23]; [535K bytes]. Available from: http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2005AACorrPWSecured.pdf


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19. Unpublished dissertation or thesis After the author and title of the work, indicate the type of work in brackets. List the city and state of the institution granting the degree, followed by the name of the institution and the date of the degree. Include an availability statement if the work is archived somewhere other than the sponsoring university’s library (for example: Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI).


19. Warner DA. Phenotypes and survival of hatchling lizards [master’s thesis]. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; 2001 Jan 16.

19. Warner DA. Phenotypes and survival of hatchling lizards [master’s thesis on the Internet]. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; 2001 Jan 16 [cited 2005 Jun 22]; [125 p.]. Available from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-01232001-123230/.


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20. Conference presentation Begin with the author and title of the presentation. After the word “In:” give any editors and the name of the conference if it is not included in the title of the publication. Give the dates and location of the conference, followed by publication information and the inclusive page numbers for the presentation. Give an availability statement if appropriate.


20. Pendleton L. The cost of beach water monitoring errors in southern California. In: Proceedings of the 2004 National Beaches Conference; 2004 Oct 13-15; San Diego, CA. Washington (DC): Environmental Protection Agency (US); 2005 Mar. p. 104-110.

20. Pendleton L. The cost of beach water monitoring errors in southern California [conference presentation on the Internet]. In: Proceedings of the 2004 National Beaches Conference [Internet]; 2004 Oct 13-15; San Diego, CA. Washington (DC): Environmental Protection Agency (US); 2005 Mar [cited 2005 Jun 30]. p. 104-110. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/beaches/meetings/2004/.


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21. Map First name the cartographer, if any, followed by the area represented, the title of the map, and, in brackets, the type of map. Provide the place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. If it is relevant, include a brief physical description of the map: the number of sheets, size, color or black and white, and scale.


21. Northeastern United States. West Nile virus: wild bird cases [demographic map]. Washington (DC): Department of the Interior (US); 2001 Jun 1. 1 sheet: color.

21. Northeastern United States. West Nile virus: wild bird cases [demographic map on the Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of the Interior (US); 2001 Jun 1 [cited 2005 Jun 22]; [1 screen]; color. Available from: http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/wnv.html


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22. Audio or video recording Begin with the title of the work, followed by the medium in brackets. Next include, if available, the author, editor, and producer. Provide the place of publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. Give a brief physical description of the work and, in parentheses, identifying information, if any. End the citation with “Available from:” followed by the name, city, and state of the organization that distributes the work or the URL for an online source.


22. NOVA: cancer warrior [videocassette]. Quade D, editor; WGBH Boston, producer. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation; 2001 Feb 27. 1 videocassette: 60 min., sound, color. Available from: WGBH Boston Video, Boston, MA.

22. NOVA: cancer warrior [video on the Internet]. Quade D, editor; WGBH Boston, producer. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation; 2001 Feb 27 [cited 2005 June 22]; 60 min., sound, color. Available from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/cancer/program.html


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