Research & Documentation Online 5th Edition

CSE in-text citations

The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. (2006).

In the text of a paper using the citation-sequence or citation-name system, the source is referenced by a superscript number.


IN-TEXT CITATION

Scientists are beginning to question the validity of linking genes to a number of human traits and disorders 1.

At the end of the paper, on a page titled References or Cited References, the source is fully identified according to CSE style.


ENTRY IN THE REFERENCE LIST

1. Horgan J. Eugenics revisited. Sci Am. 1993;268(6):122-130.

If the author or publication date of a particular work is important to your discussion, add this information to the sentence.


Smith 11, studying three species of tree frogs in South Carolina, was the first to observe. . . .

This species was not listed in early floras of New York; however, in 1985 it was reported in a botanical survey of Chenango County 13 and has since been verified 14.

In the name-year system, the author’s name and the date are given in parentheses in the text of the paper. Alternatively, the author’s name can be given in a signal phrase and the date in parentheses.


This species was not listed in early floras of New York; however, it was reported in a botanical survey of Chenango County (Osiecki and Smith 1985).

Smith (2003), studying three species of tree frogs in South Carolina, was the first to observe. . . .

Sometimes you will refer to a specific part of a source (such as a figure or a table) or will quote the exact words of a source. CSE does not provide guidelines for citing a specific part of a source, but your instructor will probably expect you to include an exact reference. The following style is consistent with CSE’s other guidelines.


My data thus differ markedly from Markam’s study on the same species in New York 5(Figs. 2,7).

Researchers observed an immune response in “19 of 20 people who ate a potato vaccine aimed at the Norwalk virus,” according to Langridge 3(p. 68).