Research & Documentation Online 5th Edition

Chicago documentation style

In Chicago style, superscript numbers in the text of the paper refer readers to notes with corresponding numbers either at the foot of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). A bibliography is often required as well; it appears at the end of the paper and gives publication information for all the works cited in the notes.


The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010).

TEXT

A Union soldier, Jacob Thompson, claimed to have seen Forrest order the killing, but when asked to describe the six-foot-two “a little bit of a man.”12


FOOTNOTE OR ENDNOTE

12. Brian Steel Wills, A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 187.


BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Wills, Brian Steel. A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.


First and subsequent notes for a source

The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that work as well as the page number on which the passage being cited may be found.


1. Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment (New York: St. Martin’s, 1965), 85.

For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, you may simply give the author’s last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks.


4. Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 31.

When you have two consecutive notes from the same source, you may use “Ibid.” (meaning “in the same place”) and the page number for the second note. Use “Ibid.” alone if the page number is the same.


5. Jack Hurst, Nathan Bedford Forrest: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1993), 8.

6. Ibid., 174.

Chicago-style bibliography

A bibliography, which appears at the end of your paper, lists every work you have cited in your notes; in addition, it may include works that you consulted but did not cite. For advice on constructing the list, click here. For a sample bibliography click here.

NOTE: If you include a bibliography, The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that you shorten all notes, including the first reference to a source, as described on this page. Check with your instructor, however, to see whether using an abbreviated note for a first reference to a source is acceptable.

Model notes and bibliography entries

The following models are consistent with guidelines set forth in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010). For each type of source, a model note appears first, followed by a model bibliography entry. The note shows the format you should use when citing a source for the first time. For subsequent citations of a source, use shortened notes.

Some online sources, typically periodical articles, use a permanent locator called a digital object identifier (DOI). Use the DOI, when it is available, in place of a URL in your citations of online sources.

When a URL (Web address) or a DOI must break across lines, do not insert a hyphen or break at a hyphen if the URL or DOI contains one. Instead, break the URL after a colon or a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation.


 

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Books (print and online)

1. Basic format for a print book


1. Mary N. Woods, Beyond the Architectís Eye: Photographs and the American Built Environment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009).

Woods, Mary N. Beyond the Architectís Eye: Photographs and the American Built Environment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

  Citation at a glance | Book (Chicago)

 

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2. Basic format for an online book


2. John Dewey, Democracy and Education (1916; ILT Digital Classics, 1994), chap. 4, http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/dewey.html.

Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. 1916. ILT Digital Classics, 1994. http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/dewey.html.


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3. Basic format for an e-book (electronic book)


3. Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (New York: Knopf, 2007), Kindle edition, vol. 1, pt. 1, chap. 3.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Knopf, 2007. Kindle edition.


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4. Two or more authors

For a work with two or three authors, give all authorsí names in both the note and the bibliography entry. For a work with four or more authors, in the note give the first authorís name followed by “et al.” (for “and others”); in the bibliography entry, list all authorsí names.

4. Chris Stringer and Peter Andrews, The Complete World of Human Evolution (London: Thames and Hudson, 2005), 45.

Stringer, Chris, and Peter Andrews.The Complete World of Human Evolution. London: Thames and Hudson, 2005.

4. Lynn Hunt et al., The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 3rd ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009), 541.

Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie
     G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 3rd ed. Boston:
     Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.


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5. Organization as author


5. Dormont Historical Society, Images of America: Dormont (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2008), 24.

Dormont Historical Society. Images of America: Dormont. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2008.


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6. Unknown author


6. The Men’s League Handbook on Women’s Suffrage (London, 1912), 23.

The Men’s League Handbook on Women’s Suffrage. London, 1912.


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7. Multiple works by the same author In the bibliography, use six hyphens in place of the author’s name in the second and subsequent entries. Arrange the entries alphabetically by title.


Harper, Raymond L. A History of Chesapeake, Virginia. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2008.

------. South Norfolk, Virginia, 1661-2005. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2005.


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8. Edited work without an author


8. Jack Beatty, ed., Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 127.

Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America. New York: Broadway Books, 2001.


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9. Edited work with an author


9. Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.

Poston, Ted. A First Draft of History. Edited by Kathleen A. Hauke. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.


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10. Translated work


10. Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places, trans. Adria Bernardi (Barcelona: Guernica, 1999), 71.

Guerra, Tonino. Abandoned Places. Translated by Adria Bernardi. Barcelona: Guernica, 1999.


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11. Edition other than the first


11. Arnoldo DeLeon, Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 3rd ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2009), 34.

DeLeon, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History. 3rd ed. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2009.


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12. Volume in a multivolume work


12. Charles Reagan Wilson, ed., Myth, Manner, and Memory, vol. 4 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), 198.

Wilson, Charles Reagan, ed. Myth, Manner, and Memory. Vol. 4 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.


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13. Work in an anthology


13. Zora Neale Hurston, “From Dust Tracks on a Road,” in The Norton Book of American Autobiography, ed. Jay Parini (New York: Norton, 1999), 336.

Hurston, Zora Neale. “From Dust Tracks on a Road.” In The Norton Book of American Autobiography, edited by Jay Parini, 333-43. New York: Norton, 1999.


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14. Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword


14. Nelson DeMille, foreword to Flag: An American Biography, by Marc Leepson (New York: Thomas Dunne, 2005), xii.

DeMille, Nelson. Foreword to Flag: An American Biography, by Marc Leepson, xi-xiv. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2005.


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15. Republished book


15. Garry Wills, Inventing America: Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence (1978; repr., Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), 86.

Wills, Garry. Inventing America: Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence. 1978. Reprint, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.


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16. Work with a title in its title

Use quotation marks around any title within an italicized title.


16. Gary Schmidgall, ed., Conserving Walt Whitman’s Fame: Selections from Horace Traubel’s “Conservator,“ 1890-1919 (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006), 165.

Schmidgall, Gary, ed. Conserving Walt Whitman’s Fame: Selections from Horace Traubel’s “Conservator,“ 1890-1919. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006.


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17. Letter in a published collection

Use the day-month-year form for the date of the letter. If the letter writerís name is part of the book title, begin the note with only the last name but begin the bibliography entry with the full name.



17. Mitford to Esmond Romilly, 29 July 1940, in Decca: The Letters of Jessica Mitford, ed. Peter Y. Sussman (New York: Knopf, 2006), 55-56.

Mitford, Jessica. Decca: The Letters of Jessica Mitford. Edited by Peter Y. Sussman. New York: Knopf, 2006.

  Citation at a glance | Letter in a published collection (Chicago)

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18. Work in a series


18. R. Keith Schoppa, The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History, Columbia Guides to Asian History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 256-58.

Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. Columbia Guides to Asian History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.


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19. Encyclopedia or dictionary entry


19. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Monroe Doctrine.”

19. Bryan A. Garner, Garner’s Modern American Usage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), s.v. “brideprice.”

Garner, Bryan A. Garner’s Modern American Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

The abbreviation “s.v.” is for the Latin sub verbo (“under the word”).

Well-known reference works such as encyclopedias do not require publication information and are usually not included in the bibliography.


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20. Sacred text


20. Matt. 20:4-9 (Revised Standard Version).

20. Qur’an 18:1-3.

Sacred texts are usually not included in the bibliography.

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21. Source quoted in another source


21. Ron Grossman and Charles Leroux, “A Local Outpost of Democracy,” Chicago Tribune, March 5, 1996, quoted in William Julius Wilson and Richard P. Taub, There Goes the Neighborhood: Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America (New York: Knopf, 2006), 18.

Grossman, Ron, and Charles Leroux. “A Local Outpost of Democracy.” Chicago Tribune, March 5, 1996. Quoted in William Julius Wilson and Richard P. Taub, There Goes the Neighborhood: Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America (New York: Knopf, 2006), 18.


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Articles in periodicals (print and online)

22. Article in a print journal Include the volume and issue numbers and the date; end the bibliography entry with the page range of the article.


22. T. H. Breen, “Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?,” Journal of American History 93, no. 2 (2006): 405.

Breen, T. H. “Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?” Journal of American History 93, no. 2 (2006): 404-8.

  Citation at a glance | Article in a scholarly journal (Chicago)

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23. Article in an online journalGive the DOI if the article has one, if there is no DOI, give the URL for the article. For unpaginated online articles, you may include in your note a locator, such as a numbered paragraph or a heading from the article.


23. Brian Lennon, “New Media Critical Homologies,” Postmodern Culture 19, no. 2 (2009), http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.109/19.2lennon.txt.

Lennon, Brian. “New Media Critical Homologies.” Postmodern Culture 19, no. 2 (2009). http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.109/19.2lennon.txt.


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24. Journal article from a database

Give whatever identifying information is available in the database listing: a DOI for the article; the name of the database and the number assigned by the database; or a “stable” or “persistent” URL for the article.


24. Constant Leung, “Language and Content in Bilingual Education,” Linguistics and Education 16, no. 2 (2005): 239, doi:10.1016/j.linged.2006.01.004.

Leung, Constant. “Language and Content in Bilingual Education.” Linguistics and Education 16, no. 2 (2005): 238-52. doi:10.1016/j.linged.2006.01.004.

  Citation at a glance | Journal article from a database (Chicago)

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25. Article in a print magazine Provide a page number in the note and a page range in the bibliography.


25. Tom Bissell, “Improvised, Explosive, and Divisive,” Harper’s, January 2006, 42.

Bissell, Tom. “Improvised, Explosive, and Divisive.” Harper’s, January 2006, 41-54.


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26. Article in an online magazine Include the URL for the article. If the article is paginated, give a page number in the note and a page range in the bibliography.


26. Katharine Mieszkowski, “A Deluge Waiting to Happen,” Salon, July 3, 2008, http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/03/floods/index.html.

Mieszkowski, Katharine. “A Deluge Waiting to Happen.” Salon, July 3, 2008. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/03/floods/index.html.


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27. Magazine article from a database Give whatever identifying information is available in the database listing: a DOI for the article; the name of the database and the number assigned by the database; or a “stable” or “persistent” URL for the article.


27. Facing Facts in Afghanistan,” National Review, November 2, 2009, 14, Expanded Academic ASAP (A209905060).

“Facing Facts in Afghanistan.” National Review, November 2, 2009, 14. Expanded Academic ASAP (A209905060).


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28. Article in a print newspaper Page numbers are not necessary; a section letter or number, if available, is sufficient.


28. Randal C. Archibold, “These Neighbors Are Good Ones without a New Fence,” New York Times, October 22, 2008, sec. A.

Archibold, Randal C. “These Neighbors Are Good Ones without a New Fence.” New York Times, October 22, 2008, sec. A.


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29. Article in an online newspaper

Include the URL for the article; if the URL is very long, use the URL for the newspaper’s home page. Omit page numbers, even if the source provides them.


29. Doyle McManus, “The Candor War,” Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010, http://www.chicagotribune.com/.

McManus, Doyle. “The Candor War.” Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010. http://www.chicagotribune.com/.

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30. Newspaper article from a databaseGive whatever identifying information is available in the database listing: a DOI for the article; the name of the database and the number assigned by the database; or a “stable” or “persistent” URL for the article.

30.Clifford J. Levy, “In Kyrgyzstan, Failure to Act Adds to Crisis,” New York Times, June 18, 2010, General OneFile (A229196045).

Levy, Clifford J. “In Kyrgyzstan, Failure to Act Adds to Crisis.” New York Times, June 18, 2010. General OneFile (A229196045).

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31. Unsigned newspaper article


31. “Renewable Energy Rules,” Boston Globe, August 11, 2003, sec. A.

Boston Globe. “Renewable Energy Rules.” August 11, 2003, sec. A.

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32. Book review

32. Benjamin Wittes, “Remember the Titan,” review of Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin T. Urofsky, Wilson Quarterly 33, no. 4 (2009): 100.

Wittes, Benjamin. “Remember the Titan.” Review of Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin T. Urofsky. Wilson Quarterly 33, no. 4 (2009): 100-101.

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33. Letter to the editor Do not use the letter’s title, even if the publication gives one.


33. David Harlan, letter to the editor, New York Review of Books, October 9, 2008.

Harlan, David. Letter to the editor. New York Review of Books, October 9, 2008.


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Online sources

34. Web siteFor most Web sites, include an author if a site has one, the title of the site, the sponsor, the date of publication or modified date (date of most recent changes), and the site’s URL. Do not italicize a Web site title unless the site is an online book or periodical. Use quotation marks for the titles of sections or pages in a Web site. If a site does not have a date of publication or modified date, give the date you accessed the site (“accessed January 3, 2010”).


34. Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, National Park Service, last modified April 9, 2010, http://www.nps.gov/choh/index.htm.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. National Park Service. Last modified April 9, 2010. http://www.nps.gov/choh/index.htm.


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35. Short work from a Web sitePlace the title of the short work in quotation marks.


35.George P. Landow, “Victorian and Victorianism,” Victorian Web, last modified August 2, 2009, http://victorianweb.org/vn/victor4.html.

Landow, George P. “Victorian and Victorianism.” Victorian Web. Last modified August 2, 2009. http://victorianweb.org/vn/victor4.html.

  Citation at a glance | Primary source from a Web site (Chicago)

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36. Online posting or e-mail If an online posting has been archived, include a URL. E-mails that are not part of an online discussion are treated as personal communications (see item 42). Online postings and e-mails are not included in the bibliography.


36. Susanna J. Sturgis to Copyediting-L discussion list, July 17, 2010, http://listserv.indiana.edu/archives/copyediting-l.html.

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37. Blog (Webblog) post

Treat as a short document from a Web site (see item 35). Put the title of the post in quotation marks, and italicize the name of the blog. Insert “blog” in parentheses after the name if the word blog is not part of the name.

37. Miland Brown, “The Flawed Montevideo Convention of 1933,” World History Blog, http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2008/05/flawed-montevideo-convention-of-1933.html.

Brown, Miland. “The Flawed Montevideo Convention of 1933.” World History Blog. http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2008/05/flawed-montevideo-convention-of-1933.html.

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38. Podcast Treat as a short work from a Web site (see item 35), including the following, if available: the author’s (or speaker’s) name; the title of the podcast, in quotation marks; an identifying number, if any; the title of the site on which it appears; the sponsor of the site; and the URL. Identify the type of podcast or file format and the date of posting or your date of access before the URL.


38. Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, “Africa’s Global Past,” Episode 40, Africa Past and Present, African Online Digital Library, podcast audio, April 29, 2010, http://afripod.aodl.org/.

Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe. “Africa’s Global Past.” Episode 40. Africa Past and Present. African Online Digital Library. Podcast audio, April 29, 2010. http://afripod.aodl.org/

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39. Online audio or video Cite as a short work from a Web site (see item 35). If the source is a downloadable file, identify the file format or medium before the URL.


39. Richard B. Freeman, “Global Capitalism, Labor Markets, and Inequality,” Institute of International Studies, University of California at Berkeley, October 31, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgNCFsXGUa0.

Freeman, Richard B. “Global Capitalism, Labor Markets, and Inequality.” Institute of International Studies, University of California at Berkeley. October 31, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgNCFsXGUa0.


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Other sources (including online versions)

40. Government document


40. U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), 562.

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943. Washington, DC: GPO, 1965.


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41. Unpublished dissertation


41. Stephanie Lynn Budin, “The Origins of Aphrodite ” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2000), 301-2, ProQuest (AAT 9976404).

Budin, Stephanie Lynn. “The Origins of Aphrodite.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2000. ProQuest (AAT 9976404).


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42. Personal communication


42. Sara Lehman, e-mail message to author, August 13, 2009.

Personal communications are not included in the bibliography.


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43. Published or broadcast interview


43. Robert Downey Jr., interview by Graham Norton, The Graham Norton Show, BBC America, December 14, 2009.

Downey, Robert, Jr. Interview by Graham Norton. The Graham Norton Show. BBC America, December 14, 2009.


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44. Published proceedings of a conference


44. Julie Kimber, Peter Love, and Phillip Deery, eds., Labour Traditions: Proceedings of the Tenth National Labour History Conference, University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, July 4-6, 2007 (Melbourne: Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 2007), 5.

Kimber, Julie, Peter Love, and Phillip Deery, eds. Labour Traditions: Proceedings of the Tenth National Labour History Conference. University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, July 4-6, 2007. Melbourne: Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 2007.


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45. Video or DVD


45. The Secret of Roan Inish, directed by John Sayles (1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000), DVD.

The Secret of Roan Inish, directed by John Sayles. 1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000. DVD.


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46. Sound recording


46. Gustav Holst, The Planets, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by André Previn, Telarc 80133, compact disc.

Holst, Gustav. The Planets. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Conducted by André Previn. Telarc 80133, compact disc.


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47. Musical score or composition


47. Antonio Vivaldi, L’Estro armonico, op. 3, ed. Eleanor Selfridge-Field (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1999).

Vivaldi, Antonio. L’Estro armonico, op. 3. Edited by Eleanor Selfridge-Field. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1999.


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48. Work of art For an original work, give the artist, the title (italicized), the medium, the date of composition, and the institution or collection housing the work. To cite a reproduction, omit the medium and location and give publication information for the source.


48. Aaron Siskind, Untitled (The Most Crowded Block), gelatin silver print, 1939, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

Siskind, Aaron. Untitled (The Most Crowded Block). Gelatin silver print, 1939. Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

48. Edward Hopper, August in the City, in Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist, by Gail Levin (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980), 197.

Hopper, Edward. August in the City. In Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist, by Gail Levin, 197. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980.


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49. Performance


49. Robert Schenkkan, The Kentucky Cycle, directed by Richard Elliott, Willows Theatre, Concord, CA, August 31, 2007.

Schenkkan, Robert. The Kentucky Cycle. Directed by Richard Elliott. Willows Theatre, Concord, CA, August 31, 2007.


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