The American Psychological Association makes a number of recommendations for formatting a paper and preparing a list of references. The following guidelines are consistent with advice given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (Washington: APA, 2010), and typical requirements for undergraduate papers.
The APA manual provides guidelines for papers prepared for publication in a scholarly journal; it does not provide separate guidelines for papers prepared for undergraduate classes. The formatting guidelines in this section and the sample paper can be used for either type of paper. Some instructors may perfer alternative formatting. If you are in doubt about the specific format preferred or required in your course, ask your instructor.
About halfway down the page, center the full title of your paper (capitalizing all words of four letters or more), your name, and your school’s name. At the bottom of the page, you may add the heading “Author Note,” centered, followed by a brief paragraph that lists specific information about the course or department or provides acknowledgments or contact information. Click here for a sample title page.
Some instructors may instead require a title page like this one. If in doubt about the requirements in your course, check with your instructor.Page numbers and running head Number all pages with arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) in the upper right corner about one inch from the top of the page. The title page should be numbered 1.
On every page, in the upper left corner on the same line as the page number, place a running head. The running head consists of a short form of the title of the paper (no more than fifty characters) in all capital letters. (On the title page only, include the words “Running head” followed by a colon before the shortened title.) See the sample paper.Margins, line spacing, and paragraph indents Use margins of one inch on all sides of the page. Left-align the text. Capitalization, italics, and quotation marks Capitalize all words of four letters or more in titles of works and in headings that appear in the text of the paper. Capitalize the first word after a colon if the word begins a complete sentence.
NOTE: APA has different requirements for titles in the reference list.Long quotations and footnotes When a quotation is longer than forty words, set it off from the text by indenting it one-half inch from the left margin. Double-space the quotation. Do not use quotation marks around a quotation that has been set off from the text. See an example.
Place each footnote, if any, at the bottom of the page on which the text reference occurs. Double-space between the last line of text on the page and the footnote. Double-space the footnote and indent the first line one-half inch. Begin the note with the superscript arabic numeral that corresponds to the number in the text. See an example.Abstract If your instructor requires an abstract, include it immediately after the title page. Center the word Abstract one inch from the top of the page; double-space the abstract as you do the body of your paper.
An abstract is a 100-to-150-word paragraph that provides readers with a quick overview of your essay. It should express your main idea and your key points; it might also briefly suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the paper. See an example.Headings Although headings are not always necessary, their use is encouraged in the social sciences. For most undergraduate papers, one level of heading will usually be sufficient.
In APA style, major headings are centered and boldface. Capitalize the first word of the heading, along with all words except articles, short prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions. See the sample paper.Visuals APA classifies visuals as tables and figures (figures include graphs, charts, drawings, and photographs). Keep visuals as simple as possible.
Below the table, give its source in a note. If any data in the table require an explanatory footnote, use a superscript lowercase letter in the body of the table and in a footnote following the source note. Double-space source notes and footnotes and do not indent the first line of each note. See an example of a table in a student paper.
In the text of your paper, discuss the most significant features of each visual. Place the visual as close as possible to the sentences that relate to it unless your instructor prefers it in an appendix.
Begin your list of references on a new page at the end of the paper. Center the title References one inch from the top of the page. Double-space throughout. See a sample reference list.Indenting entries Use a hanging indent in the reference list: Type the first line of each entry flush left and indent any additional lines one-half inch. Alphabetizing the list Alphabetize the reference list by the last names of the authors (or editors); when a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.
If your list includes two or more works by the same author, arrange the entries by year, the earliest first. If your list includes two or more works by the same author in the same year, arrange the works alphabetically by title. Add the letters “a,” “b,” and so on within the parentheses after the year. Use only the year and the letter for articles in journals: (2002a). Use the full date and the letter for articles in magazines and newspapers in the reference list: (2005a, July 7). Use only the year and the letter in the in-text citation.Authors’ names Invert all authors’ names and use initials instead of first names. With two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. Separate the names with commas. Include names for the first seven authors; if there are eight or more authors, give the first six authors, three ellipsis dots, and the last author (see item 2). Titles of books and articles Italicize the titles and subtitles of books. Do not use quotation marks around the titles of articles. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (and all proper nouns) of books and articles. Capitalize names of periodicals as you would capitalize them normally. Abbreviations for page numbers Abbreviations for “page” and “pages” (“p.” and “pp.”) are used before page numbers of newspaper articles and articles in edited books (see item 9 and item 22) but not before page numbers of articles in magazines and scholarly journals (see items 7-8).
Breaking a URL When a URL or a DOI (digital object identifier) must be divided, break it after a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation. Do not insert a hyphen, and do not add a period at the end.