Research & Documentation Online 5th Edition

APA list of references

In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited, which appears at the end of the paper, is titled “References.” For advice on preparing the reference list, click here. For a sample reference list, click here.

The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2010).

Alphabetize entries in the list of references by authors’ last names; if a work has no author, alphabetize it by its title. The first element of each entry is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it in the alphabetized list. The date of publication appears immediately after the first element of the citation.

In APA style, titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are neither italicized nor put in quotation marks. (For rules on capitalization of titles, click here.)

Many Sources, both print and online, inclue a unique, permanent number called a digital object identifier (DOI) that allows users to access a source in a variety of ways. For a reference list entry for a print source, give all the print publication information and add the DOI, if the source has one, at the end of the entry (see item 7.). For an online source, give the DOI at the end of the entry in place of a URL (see item 30).


General guidelines for listing authors (print and online)

In APA style, all authors’ names are inverted (the last name comes first), and initials only are used for all first and middle names.


NAME AND DATE CITED IN TEXT

Duncan (2008) has reported that . . .

BEGINNING OF ENTRY IN THE LIST OF REFERENCES

Duncan, B. (2008).

1. Single author





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2. Multiple authors List up to seven authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. If there are more than seven authors, list the first six followed by three ellipsis dots and the last author’s name. (See item 3 for citing works with multiple authors in your paper.)


Two to seven authors



Eight or more authors


Mulvaney, S. A., Mudasiru, E., Schlundt, D. G., Baughman, C. L., Fleming, M., VanderWoude, A., . . . Rothman, R. (2008). Self-management in Type 2 diabetes: The adolescent perspective. The Diabetes Educator, 34, 118-127.


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3. Organization as author


If the publisher is not the same as the author, give the publisher’s name as you would for any other source.


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4. Unknown author Begin the entry with the work’s title.





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5. Two or more works by the same author Use the author’s name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest first.


Barry, P. (2007, December 8). Putting tumors on pause. Science News, 172, 365.

Barry, P. (2008, August 2). Finding the golden genes. Science News, 174, 16-21.


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6. Two or more works by the same author in the same year List the works alphabetically by title. In the parentheses, following the year add “a,” “b,” and so on. Use these same letters when giving the year in the in-text citation. (See also formatting guidelines.)


Elkind, D. (2008a, Spring). Can we play? Greater Good, 4(4), 14-17.

Elkind, D. (2008b, June 27). The price of hurrying children [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blogs/psychologytoday.com/blog/digital-children


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Articles in periodicals (print)

Periodicals include scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers. For a journal or a magazine, give only the volume number if the publication is paginated continuously through each volume; give the volume and issue numbers if each issue of the volume begins on page 1. Italicize the volume number and put the issue number, not italicized, in parentheses.

For all periodicals, when an article appears on consecutive pages, provide the range of pages. When an article does not appear on consecutive pages, give all page numbers: A1, A17. (See also “Online sources” for online articles and articles accessed through a library’s database.)

  Citation at a glance | Article in a periodical (APA)

7. Article in a journal





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8. Article in a magazine Cite as a journal article, but give the year and the month for monthly magazines; add the day for weekly magazines.


McKibben, B. (2007, October). Carbon’s new math. National Geographic, 212(4), 32-37.


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9. Article in a newspaper


Give the year, month, and day for daily and weekly newspapers. Use “p.” or “pp.” before page numbers.


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10. Article with three to seven authors


Ungar, M., Brown, M., Liebenberg, L., Othman, R., Kwong, W. M., Armstrong, M., & Gilgun, J. (2007). Unique pathways to resilience across cultures. Adolescence, 42, 287-310.


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11. Article with eight or more authors List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis dots and the last author.


Krippner, G., Granovetter, M., Block, F., Biggart, N., Beamish, T., Hsing, Y., . . . O’Riain, S. (2004). Polanyi Symposium: A conversation on embeddedness. Socio-Economic Review, 2, 109-135.


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12. Abstract of a journal article


Lahm, K. (2008). Inmate-on-inmate assault: A multilevel examination of prison violence [Abstract]. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(1), 120-137.


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13. Letter to the editor Letters to the editor appear in journals, magazines, and newspapers. Follow the appropriate model (see items 7–9), and insert the words “Letter to the editor” in brackets after the title of the letter. If the letter has no title, use the bracketed words as the title.


Park, T. (2008, August). Defining the line [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 299(2), 10.


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14. Editorial or other unsigned article


The global justice movement [Editorial]. (2005). Multinational Monitor, 26(7/8), 6.


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15. Newsletter article


Setting the stage for remembering. (2006, September). Mind, Mood, and Memory, 2(9), 4-5.


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16. Review Give the author and title of the review (if any) and, in brackets, the type of work, the title, and the author for a book or the year for a motion picture. If the review has no author or title, use the material in brackets as the title.


Applebaum, A. (2008, February 14). A movie that matters [Review of the motion picture Katyn, 2007]. The New York Review of Books, 55(2), 13-15.


Agents of change. (2008, February 2). [Review of the book The power of unreasonable people: How social entrepreneurs create markets that change the world, by J. Elkington & P. Hartigan]. The Economist, 386(8565), 94.


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Books (print)

Items 17–29 apply to print books. For online books, see items 36 and 37.

Take the information about a book from its title page and copyright page. If more than one place of publication is listed, use only the first. Give the city and state (abbreviated) for all US cities or the city and the country (not abbreviated) for all non-US cities; also include the province (not abbreviated) for Canadian cities. Do not give a state if the publisher’s name includes it (as in many university presses, for example).

  Citation at a glance | Book (APA)

17. Basic format for a book




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18. Book with an editor


The abbreviation “Eds.” is for multiple editors. If the book has one editor, use “Ed.”

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19. Book with an author and an editor


The abbreviation “Eds.” is for multiple editors. If the book has one editor, use “Ed.”

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20. Book with an author and a translator After the title, name the translator, followed by “Trans.,” in parentheses. Add the original date of publication at the end of the entry.


Steinberg, M. D. (2003). Voices of revolution, 1917 (M. Schwartz, Trans.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (Original work published 2001)


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21. Edition other than the first


O’Brien, J. A. (Ed.). (2006). The production of reality: Essays and readings on social interaction (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.


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22. Article or chapter in an edited book or an anthology


The abbreviation “Eds.” is for multiple editors. If the book has one editor, use “Ed.”


 

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23. Multivolume work Give the number of volumes after the title.


Luo, J. (Ed.). (2005). China today: An encyclopedia of life in the People’s Republic (Vols. 1-2). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


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24. Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword


Gore, A. (2000). Foreword. In B. Katz (Ed.), Reflections on regionalism (pp. ix-x). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.


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25. Dictionary or other reference work


Leong, F. T. L. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of counseling (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


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26. Article in a reference work


Konijn, E. A. (2008). Affects and media exposure. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of communication (Vol. 1, pp. 123-129). Malden, MA: Blackwell.


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27. Republished book


Mailer, N. (2008). Miami and the siege of Chicago: An informal history of the Republican and Democratic conventions fo 1968. New York, NY: New York Review Books. (Original work published 1968)



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28. Book with a title in its title If the book title contains another book title or an article title, neither italicize the internal title nor place it in quotation marks.


Marcus, L. (Ed.). (1999). Sigmund Freud’s The interpretation of dreams: New interdisciplinary essays. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.



Marcus, L. (Ed.). (1999). Sigmund Freud’s The interpretation of dreams: New interdisciplinary essays. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.


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29. Sacred or classical text It is not necessary to list sacred works such as the Bible or the Qur'an or classical Greek and Roman works in your reference list. See item 14 for how to cite these sources in the text of your paper.

 


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Online sources

When citing an online article, include publication information as for a print periodical (see items 7–16) and add information about the online version (see items 30–35).

Online articles and books sometimes include a DOI (digital object identifier). APA uses the DOI, when available, in place of a URL in reference list entries.

Use a retrieval date for an online source only if the content is likely to change. Most of the examples in this section do not show a retrieval date because the content of the sources is stable; if you are unsure about whether to use a retrieval date, include the date or consult your instructor.

If you must break a DOI or a URL at the end of a line, break it after a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation; do not add a hyphen. Do not put a period at the end of the entry.


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30. Article in an online journal


If there is no DOI, include the URL for the journal’s home page.


Ashe, D. D., & McCutcheon, L. E. (2001). Shyness, loneliness, and attitude toward celebrities. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6, 124-133. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html


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31. Article in an online magazine Treat as an article in a print magazine (see item 8), adding whatever publication information is available. Give the URL for the magazine’s home page.


Rupley, S. (2010, February 26). The myth of the benign monopoly. Salon. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/


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32. Article in an online newspaper Treat as an article in a print newspaper (see item 9), adding the URL for the newspaper’s home page.


Watson, P. (2008, October 19). Biofuel boom endangers orangutan habitat. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/


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33. Article published only online If an article in a journal, magazine, or newspaper appears only online, give whatever publication information is available in the source and add the description “Supplemental material” in brackets following the article title.


Samuel, T. (2009, March 27). Mind the wage gap [Supplemental material]. The American Prospect. Retrieved from http://www.prospect.org/


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34. Article from a database Start with the publication information for the source (see items 7–16). If the database entry includes a DOI for the article, use the DOI number at the end.

  Citation at a glance | Article from a database (APA)

If there is no DOI, include the URL for the home page of the journal.


Howard, K. R. (2007). Childhood overweight: Parental perceptions and readiness for change. The Journal of School Nursing, 23, 73-79. Retrieved from http://jsn.sagepub.com/


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35. Abstract for an online article


Brockerhoff, E. G., Jactel, H., Parrotta, J. A., Quine, C. P., & Sayer, J. (2008). Plantation forests and biodiversity: Oxymoron or opportunity? [Abstract]. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 925-951. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9380-x


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36. Online book


Adams, B. (2004). The theory of social revolutions. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=44092 (Original work published 1913)

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37. Chapter in an online book


Clinton, S. J. (2004). What can be done to prevent childhood obesity? In Understanding childhood obesity (pp 81-98). Retrieved from http://www.questia.com

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38. Online reference work


Swain, C. M. (2004). Sociology of affirmative action. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/referenceworks/9780080430768

Use a retrieval date only if the content of the work is likely to change.


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39. Document from a Web site List as many of the following elements as are available: author’s name, publication date (or “n.d.” if there is no date), title (in italics), and URL. Give your retrieval date only if the content of the source is likely to change.


Source with date



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Source with no date


Archer, D. (n.d.). Exploring nonverbal communication. Retrieved from http://nonverbal.ucsc.edu


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Source with no author

If a source has no author, begin with the title and follow it with the date in parentheses.


What causes Alzheimer’s disease? (2008). Retrieved from http://www.memorystudy.org/alzheimers_causes.htm


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40. Section in a Web document


  Citation at a glance | Section in a Web document (APA)




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41. Document from a university Web site or government agency Name the organization or agency in your retrieval statement.


Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1997). Evolutionary psychology: A primer. Retrieved from University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Evolutionary Psychology website: http://www.psych.ucsb.edu /research/cep/primer.html


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42. Article in an online newsletter Cite as an online article (see items 3032), giving the title of the newsletter and whatever other information is available, including volume and issue numbers.


In the face of extinction. (2008, May). NSF Current. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/news/newsletter/may_08/index.jsp


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43. Podcast




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44. Weblog (blog) post Give the writer’s name, the date of the post, the subject, the label “Web log post,” and the URL. For a response to a post, use the label “Web log comment.”


Kellermann, M. (2007, May 23). Disclosing clinical trials [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.iq.harvard.edu/blog/sss/archives/2007/05/disclosing_clin.html


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45. Online audio or video file Give the medium or a description of the source file in brackets following the title.


Chomsky, N. (n.d.). The new imperialism [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.rhapsody.com/noamchomsky

Zakaria, F. (Host), & McCullough, C. (Writer). (2007, March 6). In focus: American teens, Rwandan truths [Video file]. Retrieved from http://il.youtube.com/watch?v=1uTsQLH3vNQ&feature=related


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46. Entry in a wiki Begin with the title of the entry and the date of posting (use “n.d.” for “no date” if the entry does not have a date). Then add your retrieval date, the name of the wiki, and the URL for the wiki. Include the date of retrieval because the content of a wiki is often not stable. If an author or an editor is identified, include that name at the beginning of the entry.


Ethnomethodology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://en.stswiki.org/index.php/Ethnomethodology


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47. Data set or graphic representation Give information about the type of source in brackets following the title. If there is no title, give a brief description of the content of the source in brackets in place of the title.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2009). Eating and health module (ATUS): 2007 data [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/ATUS/Data/2007/2007data.htm

Gallup. (2008, October 23). No increase in proportion of first-time voters [Graphs]. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/111331/No-Increase-Proportion-First-Time-Voters.aspx


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48. Conference hearing


Carmona, R. H. (2004, March 2). The growing epidemic of childhood obesity. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Competition, Foreign Commerce, and Infrastructure of the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify /t040302.html


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49. E-mail E-mail messages, letters, and other personal communications are not included in the list of references. (See guidelines for citing these sources in the text of your paper.)

 

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50. Online posting If an online posting is not archived, cite it as a personal communication in the text of your paper and do not include it in the list of references. If the posting is archived, give the URL and the name of the discussion list if the name is not part of the URL.


McKinney, J. (2006, December 19). Adult education-healthcare partnerships [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.nifl.gov/pipermail/healthliteracy/2006/000524.html


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Other sources (including online versions)

51. Dissertation from a database


Hymel, K. M. (2009). Essays in urban economics (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3355930)


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52. Unpublished dissertation


Mitchell, R. D. (2007). The Wesleyan Quadrilateral: Relocating the conversation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Claremont School of Theology, Claremont, CA.


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53. Government document


U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2008, August). U.S. international trade in goods and services (Report No. CB08-121, BEA08-37, FT-900). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/2008pr/06/ftdpress.pdf


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54. Report from a private organization If the publisher and the author are the same, begin with the publisher. For a print source, use “Author” as the publisher at the end of the entry (see item 3); for an online source, give the URL. If the report has a number, put it in parentheses following the title.


Ford Foundation. (n.d.). Helping citizens to understand and influence state budgets. Retrieved from http://www.fordfoundation.org/pdfs/library /state_fiscal_initiative.pdf


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55. Legal source


Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute website: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0339_0629_ZS.html


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56. Conference proceedings


Stahl, G. (Ed.). (2002). Proceedings of CSCL ’02: Computer support for collaborative learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


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57. Paper presented at a meeting or symposium (unpublished)


Anderson, D. N. (2008, May). Cab-hailing and the micropolitics of gesture. Paper presented at the Arizona Linguistics and Anthropology Symposium, Tucson, AZ.


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58. Poster session at a conference


Wang, Z., & Keogh, T. (2008, June). A click away: Student response to clickers. Poster session presented at the annual conference of the American Library Association, Anaheim, CA.


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59. Map or chart


Ukraine [Map]. (2008). Retrieved from the University of Texas at Austin Perry-Castaņeda Library Map Collection website: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/cia08/ukraine_sm_2008.gif


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60. Advertisement


Xbox 360 [Advertisement]. (2007, February). Wired, 15(2), 71.


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61. Published interview


Murphy, C. (2007, June 22). As the Romans did [Interview by G. Hahn]. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/


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62. Lecture, speech, or address


Fox, V. (2008, March 5). Economic growth, poverty, and democracy in Latin America: A president’s perspective. Address at the Freeman Spogli Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.


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63. Work of art or photograph


Weber, J. (1992). Toward freedom [Outdoor mural]. Sherman Oaks, CA.

Newkirk, K. (2006). Gainer (part II). Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL.


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64. Brochure, pamphlet, or fact sheet


National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (n.d.). Professional boundaries [Brochure]. Retrieved from https://www.ncsbn.org/Professional_Boundaries_2007_Web.pdf

World Health Organization. (2007, October). Health of indigenous peoples (No. 326) [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs326/en/index.html


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65. Presentation slides


Boeninger, C. F. (2008, August). Web 2.0 tools for reference and instructional services [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://libraryvoice.com/archives/2008/08/04/opal-20-conference-presentation-slides/


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66. Film or video (motion picture) Give the director, producer, and other relevant contributors, followed by the year of the film’s release, the title, the description “Motion picture” in brackets, the country where the film was made, and the studio. If you viewed the film on videocassette or DVD, indicate that medium in brackets in place of “Motion picture.” If the original release date and the date of the DVD or videocassette are different, add “Original release” and that date in parentheses at the end of the entry. If the motion picture would be difficult for your readers to find, include instead the name and address of its distributor.


Guggenheim, D. (Director), & Bender, L. (Producer). (2006). An inconvenient truth [DVD]. United States: Paramount Home Entertainment.

Spurlock, M. (Director). (2004). Super size me [Motion picture]. Available from IDP Films, 1133 Broadway, Suite 926, New York, NY 10010


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67. Television program List the producer and the date the program was aired. Give the title, followed by “Television broadcast” in brackets, the city, and the television network or service.


Pratt, C. (Executive producer). (2008, October 5). Face the nation [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

For a television series, use the year in which the series was produced, and follow the title with “Television series” in brackets. For an episode in a series, list the writer and director and the year. After the episode title, put “Television series episode” in brackets. Follow with information about the series.


Fanning, D. (Executive producer). (2008). Frontline [Television series]. Boston, MA: WGBH.

Smith, M. (Writer/producer). (2008). Heat [Television series episode]. In D. Fanning (Executive producer), Frontline. Boston, MA: WGBH.


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68. Sound recording


Thomas, G. (1996). Breath. On Didgeridoo: Ancient sound of the future [CD]. Oxnard, CA: Aquarius International Music.


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69. Computer software or video game Add the words “Computer software” (neither italicized nor in quotation marks) in brackets after the title of the program.


Sims 2 [Computer software]. (2005). New York, NY: Maxis.


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