Research & Documentation Online 5th Edition

MLA list of works cited

An alphabetized list of works cited, which appears at the end of your research paper, gives publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper. Include only sources that you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased. (For information about preparing the list, click here; for a sample list of works cited, click here.)


The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (2009).


General guidelines for works cited in MLA style

In an MLA works cited entry, the first author’s name is inverted (the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the first name), and all other names are in normal order. In titles of works, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), prepositions (to, from, between, and so on), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet), and the to in infinitives — unless they are the first or last word of the title or subtitle. Titles of periodical articles and other short works, such as brief documents from Web sites, are put in quotation marks; titles of books and other long works, such as entire Web sites, are italicized.

The city of publication is given without a state name. Publishers’ names are shortened, usually to the first principal word (“Wiley” for “John Wiley and Sons,” for instance), and “University” and “Press” are abbreviated “U” and “P” in the names of university publishers: UP of Florida. The date of publication is the date on the title page or the most recent date on the copyright page.

All works cited entries must include the medium in which a work was published, produced, or delivered. The medium usually appears at the end of the entry, capitalized but neither italicized nor in quotation marks. Typical designations for the medium are “Print,” “Web,” “Radio,” “Television,” “CD,” “Audiocassette,” “Film,” “Videocassette,” “DVD,” “Pho-tograph,” “Performance,” “Lecture,” “MP3 file,” and “PDF file.” (See specific items throughout this section.)

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Listing authors (print and online)

Alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by authors’ last names (or by title if a work has no author). The author’s name is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it at the beginning of an entry in the alphabetized list.


NAME CITED IN TEXT

According to Nancy Flynn, . . .


BEGINNING OF WORKS CITED ENTRY

Flynn, Nancy.

1. Single author



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2. Two or three authors



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3. Four or more authors Name all the authors or name the first author followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). In an in-text citation, use the same form for the authors’ names as you use in the works cited entry. See item 7.



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4. Organization as author


For a publication by a government agency, see item 73. Your in-text citation should also treat the organization as the author (see item 8).


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5. Unknown author


Article or other short work


For other examples of an article with no author and a television program, see items 31 and 65, respectively.


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Book, entire Web site, or other long work


Before concluding that the author of an online source is unknown, check carefully (see the tip). Also remember that an organization or a government may be the author (see items 4 and 73).


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6. Two or more works by the same author If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, first alphabetize the works by title (ignoring the article A, An, or The at the beginning of a title). Use the author’s name for the first entry only; for subsequent entries, use three hyphens followed by a period. The three hyphens must stand for exactly the same name or names as in the first entry.


Knopp, Lisa. Field of Vision. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1996. Print.

---. The Nature of Home: A Lexicon and Essays. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2002. Print.

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Books (print)

Items 7–24 apply to print books. For online books, see items 41 and 42..

  Citation at a glance | Book (MLA)

7. Basic format for a book


Take the information about the book from its title page and copyright page. Use a short form of the publisher’s name; omit terms such as “Press,” “Inc.,” and “Co.” except when naming university presses (“Harvard UP,” for example). If the copyright page lists more than one date, use the most recent one.

 

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8. Book with an author and an editor


The abbreviation “Ed.” means “Edited by,” so it is the same for one or multiple editors.



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9. Book with an author and a translator “Trans.” means “Translated by,” so it is the same for one or multiple translators.


Scirocco, Alfonso. Garibaldi: Citizen of the World. Trans. Allan Cameron. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2007. Print.

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10. Book with an editor Begin with the editor’s name. For one editor, use “ed.” (for “editor”) after the name; for multiple editors, use “eds.” (for “editors”).


Lago, Mary, Linda K. Hughes, and Elizabeth MacLeod Walls, eds. The BBC Talks of E. M. Forster, 1929-1960. Columbia: U of Missouri P, 2008. Print.

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11. Graphic narrative or illustrated book For a book that combines text and illustrations, begin your citation with the person you wish to emphasize (writer, illustrator, artist) and list any other contributors after the title of the book. Use the abbreviation “illus.” and other common labels to identify contributors. If the writer and illustrator are the same person, cite the work as you would a book, with no labels.


Weaver, Dustin, illus. The Tenth Circle. By Jodi Picoult. New York: Washington Square, 2006. Print.

Moore, Alan. V for Vendetta. Illus. David Lloyd. New York: Vertigo-DC Comics, 2008. Print.

Thompson, Craig. Blankets. Marietta: Top Shelf, 2005.

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12. Book with an author using a pseudonym Give the author’s name as it appears on the title page (the pseudonym), and follow it with the author’s real name in brackets.


Dinesen, Isak [Karen Blixen]. Winter’s Tales. 1942. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.

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13. Book in a language other than English If your readers are not familiar with the language of the book, include a translation of the title in brackets. Capitalize the title according to the conventions of the book’s language, and give the original publication information.


Nemtsov, Boris, and Vladimir Milov. Putin. Itogi. Nezavisimyi Ekspertnyi Doklad [Putin. The Results: An Independent Expert Report]. Moscow: Novaya Gazeta, 2008. Print.

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14. Entire anthology An anthology is a collection of works on a common theme, often with different authors for the selections and usually with an editor for the entire volume. The abbreviation “eds.” is for multiple editors. If the book has only one editor, use the singular “ed.” after the editor’s name.


Dumanis, Michael, and Cate Marvin, eds. Legitimate Dangers: American Poets of the New Century. Louisville: Sarabande, 2006. Print.

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15. One or more selections from an anthology


One selection from anthology


The abbreviation “Ed.” means “Edited by,” so it is the same for one or multiple editors.

 

If you use two or more works from the same anthology in your paper, provide an entry for the entire anthology (see item 14) and give a shortened entry for each selection. Cross-reference the editor(s) of the anthology and give the page number(s) on which the selection appears. Use the medium only in the entry for the complete anthology. Alphabetize the entries in the list of works cited by authors’ or editors’ last names, as shown on the next page.

 

  Citation at a glance | Selection from an anthology (MLA)



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Two or more selections, with separate anthology entry





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16. Edition other than the first Include the number of the edition (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and so on). If the book has a translator or an editor in addition to the author, give the name of the translator or editor after the edition number, using the abbreviation “Trans.” for “Translated by” (see item 9) or “Ed.” for “Edited by” (see item 10).


Auletta, Ken. The Underclass. 2nd ed. Woodstock: Overlook, 2000. Print.

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17. Multivolume work Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation “vols.” If the volumes were published over several years, give the inclusive dates of publication. The abbreviation “Ed.” means “Edited by,” so it is the same for one or multiple editors.


If you cite only one of the volumes in your paper, include the volume number before the city and publisher and give the date of publication for that volume. After the date, give the medium of publication followed by the total number of volumes.



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18. Encyclopedia or dictionary entry List the author of the entry (if there is one), the title of the entry, the title of the reference work, the edition number (if any), the date of the edition, and the medium. Volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries in the source are arranged alphabetically and are therefore easy to locate.


Posner, Rebecca. “Romance Languages.” The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987. Print.

“Sonata.” The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. 2000. Print.

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19. Sacred text Give the title of the edition of the sacred text (taken from the title page), italicized; the editor’s or translator’s name (if any); publication information; and the medium. Add the name of the version, if there is one.


The Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Ed. Herbert G. May and Bruce M. Metzger. New York: Oxford UP, 1965. Print. Rev. Standard Vers.

The Qur’an: Translation. Trans. Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Elmhurst: Tahrike, 2000. Print.

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20. Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword


If the book part has a title, include it in quotation marks immediately after the author’s name and before the label for the book part.


Ozick, Cynthia. “Portrait of the Essay as a Warm Body.” Introduction. The Best American Essays 1998. Ed. Ozick. Boston: Houghton, 1998. xv-xxi. Print.

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21. Book with a title in its title If the book title contains a title normally italicized, neither italicize the internal title nor place it in quotation marks.


Woodson, Jon. A Study of Joseph Heller’s Catch-22: Going Around Twice. New York: Lang, 2001. Print.

If the title within the title is normally put in quotation marks, retain the quotation marks and italicize the entire book title.


Millás, Juan José. “Personality Disorders” and Other Stories. Trans. Gregory B. Kaplan. New York: MLA, 2007. Print. MLA Texts and Trans.

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22. Book in a series After the publication information, give the medium of publication and then the series name as it appears on the title page, followed by the series number, if any.


Douglas, Dan. Assessing Languages for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. Print. Cambridge Applied Linguistics Ser.

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23. Republished book After the title of the book, give the original publication date, followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include information about the new material after the original date.


Trilling, Lionel. The Liberal Imagination. 1950. Introd. Louis Menand. New York: New York Review of Books, 2008. Print.

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24. Publisher’s imprint If a book was published by an imprint (a division) of a publishing company, give the name of the imprint, a hyphen, and the name of the publisher.


Ackroyd, Peter. The Fall of Troy. New York: Talese-Doubleday, 2007. Print.

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Articles in periodicals (print)

This section shows how to prepare works cited entries for articles in print magazines, journals, and newspapers. See “General guidelines” and “Listing authors” for how to handle basic parts of the entries. See also “Online sources for articles from Web sites and articles accessed through a library’s database.

For articles appearing on consecutive pages, provide the range of pages (see items 25 and 26). When an article does not appear on consecutive pages, give the number of the first page followed by a plus sign: 32+. For dates requiring a month, abbreviate all but May, June, and July.

  Citation at a glance | Article in a periodical (MLA)


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25. Article in a journal (paginated by volume or by issue)




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26. Article in a monthly magazine




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27. Article in a weekly magazine


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28. Article in a daily newspaper Give the page range of the article. If the article does not appear on consecutive pages, use a plus sign (+) after the first page number. If the city of publication is not obvious from the title of the newspaper, include the city in brackets after the name of the newspaper.

If sections are identified by letter, include the section letter as part of the page number. If sections are numbered, include the section number between the date and the page number, using the abbreviation “sec.”: 14 Sept. 2009, sec. 2: 21.

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Page number with section letter

Include the section letter as part of the page number.



Page number with section number

Include the section number immediately after the date, using the abbreviation “sec.”



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29. Abstract of a journal article Include the word “Abstract” after the title of the article.


Walker, Joyce. “Narratives in the Database: Memorializing September 11th Online.” Abstract. Computers and Composition 24.2 (2007): 121. Print.

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30. Article with a title in its title Use single quotation marks around a title or another quoted term that appears in an article title. Italicize a title or term normally italicized.


Shen, Min. “ ’Quite a Moon!’ The Archetypal Feminine in Our Town.” American Drama 16.2 (2007): 1-14. Print.


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31. Editorial or other unsigned article Begin with the article title and alphabetize the entry by title in the list of works cited.


“Getting the Message: Communicating Electronically with Doctors Can Spur Honesty from Young Patients.” Editorial. Columbus [OH] Dispatch 19 June 2008: 10A. Print.

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32. Letter to the editor


Morris, David. “Fiercely Proud.” Letter. Progressive Feb. 2008: 6. Print.

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33. Book or film review Name the reviewer and the title of the review, if any, followed by “Rev. of” and the title and author or director of the work reviewed. Add the publication information for the periodical in which the review appears. If the review has no author and no title, begin with “Rev. of” and alphabetize the entry by the first principal word in the title of the work reviewed.


Dodge, Chris. Rev. of The Radical Jack London: Writings on War and Revolution, ed. Jonah Raskni. Utne Reader Sept.-Oct. 2008: 35. Print.

Lane, Anthony. “Dream On.” Rev. of The Science of Sleep and Renaissance, dir. Michel Gondry. New Yorker 25 Sept. 2006: 155-57. Print.


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Online sources

MLA guidelines assume that readers can locate most online sources by entering the author, title, or other identifying information in a search engine or a database. Consequently, the MLA Handbook does not require a Web address (URL) in citations for online sources. Some instructors may require a URL; for an example, see the note at the end of item 34.

MLA style calls for a sponsor or a publisher for most online sources. If a source has no sponsor or publisher, use the abbreviation “N.p.” (for “No publisher”) in the sponsor position. If there is no date of publication or update, use “n.d.” (for “no date”) after the sponsor. For an article in an online journal or an article from a database, give page numbers if they are available; if they are not, use the abbreviation “n. pag.” (See item 37.)


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34. Entire Web site


Web site with author



Web site with organization (group) as author



Web site with no author



Web site with editor

See item 10 for listing the name(s) of editor(s).


Halsall, Paul, ed. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham U, 22 Sept. 2001. Web. 19 Jan. 2009.


Web site with no title

Use the label “Home page” or another appropriate description in place of a title.


Yoon, Mina. Home page. Oak Ridge Natl. Laboratory, 28 Dec. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2009.

NOTE: If your instructor requires a URL for Web sources, include the URL, enclosed in angle brackets, at the end of the entry. When a URL in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen.


Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther. Susan Lynn Peterson, 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2009. http://www.susanlynnpeterson.com/index_files/luther.htm.

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35. Short work from a Web site Short works include articles, poems, and other documents that are not book length or that appear as internal pages on a Web site.

  Citation at a glance | Short work from a Web site (MLA)


Short work with author



Short work with no author



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36. Web site with an author using a pseudonym Begin the entry with the pseudonym and add the author’s or creator’s real name, if known, in brackets. Follow with the information required for a Web site or a short work from a Web site (see item 34 or 35).


Grammar Girl [Mignon Fogarty]. “What Is the Plural of ’Mouse’?” Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Holtzbrinck, 16 Sept. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.

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37. Article in an online scholarly journal



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38. Article in an online magazine Give the author; the title of the article, in quotation marks; the title of the magazine, italicized; the sponsor or publisher of the site (use “N.p.” if there is none); the date of publication; the medium; and your date of access.


Burton, Robert. “The Certainty Epidemic.” Salon.com. Salon Media Group, 29 Feb. 2008. Web. 18 Jan. 2009.

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39. Article in an online newspaper Give the author, the title of the article, in quotation marks; the title of the newspaper, italicized; the sponsor or publisher of the site (use “N.p.” if there is none); the date of publication; the medium; and your date of access.


Smith, Andrew D. “Poll: More than 70% of US Workers Use Internet on the Job.” Dallasnews.com. Dallas Morning News, 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 29 Oct. 2009.

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40. Work from a database For a source retrieved from a library’s subscription database, first list the publication information for the source (see items 25–33) and then provide information about the database.
  Citation at a glance | Article from a database (MLA)


Barrera, Rebeca María. “A Case for Bilingual Education.” Scholastic Parent and Child Nov.-Dec. 2004: 72-73. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Feb. 2009.

Williams, Jeffrey J. “Why Today’s Publishing World Is Reprising the Past.” Chronicle of Higher Education 13 June 2008: 8+. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 29 May 2009.

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41. Online book-length work Cite a book or a book-length work, such as a play or a long poem, as you would a short work from a Web site (see item 35), but italicize the title of the work.


Give the print publication information for the work, if available (see items 7–24), followed by the title of the Web site, the medium, and your date of access.

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42. Part of an online book Begin as for a part of a print book (see item 20). If the online book part has no page numbers, use “N. pag.” following the publication information. End with the Web site on which the work is found, the medium, and your date of access.


Adams, Henry. “Diplomacy.” The Education of Henry Adams. Boston: Houghton, 1918. N. pag. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Web. 8 Jan. 2009.

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43. Digital archives Digital archives are online collections of documents or records — books, letters, photographs, data — that have been converted to digital form. Cite publication information for the original document, if it is available, using the models throughout this section. Then give the location of the document, if any, neither italicized nor in quotation marks; the name of the archive, italicized; the medium (“Web”); and your date of access.


Fiore, Mark. Shockwaves. 18 Oct. 2001. September 11 Digital Archive. Web. 3 Apr. 2009.

Oblinger, Maggie. Letter to Charlie Thomas. 31 Mar. 1895. Nebraska State Hist. Soc. Prairie Settlement: Nebraska Photographs and Family Letters, 1862-1912. Web. 3 Apr. 2009.

WPA Household Census for 1047 W. 50th Street, Los Angeles County. 1939. USC Lib. Spec. Collections. USC Libraries Digital Archive. Web. 12 Mar. 2009.

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44. Entry in an online reference work Give the title of the entry, in quotation marks; the title of the site; the sponsor and update date (use “n.d.” if there is none); the medium; and your date of access.


“Native American Church.” Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008. Web. 29 Jan. 2009.

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45. Online poem Cite as you would a short work from a Web site and an online book-length work (you may need to combine elements from items 35 and 42).


Bell, Acton [Anne Brontë]. “Mementos.” Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. London, 1846. N. pag. A Celebration of Women Writers. Web. 18 Sept. 2009.

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46. Entire Weblog (blog) Cite a blog as you would an entire Web site (see item 34).


Gristmill. Grist Magazine, 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2009.

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47. Entry or comment in a Weblog (blog) Cite an entry or a comment (a response to an entry) in a blog as you would a short work from a Web site (see item 35). If the comment or entry has no title, use the label “Weblog entry” or “Weblog comment.” Follow with the remaining information as for an entire blog in item 46.


“Social Media: Facebook and MySpace as University Curricula.” Open Education. Open Education.net, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2008.

Cindy. Weblog comment. Open Education. Open Education.net, 5 Sept. 2008. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.

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48. Academic course or department home page Cite as a short work from a Web site (see item 35). For a course home page, begin with the name of the instructor and the title of the course or title of the page (use “Course home page” if there is no other title). For a department home page, begin with the name of the department and the label “Dept. home page.”


Marrone, Carole. “355:301: College Writing and Research.” Rutgers. Rutgers U, 2008. Web. 19 Sept. 2008.

Comparative Media Studies. Dept. home page. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT, 2006. Web. 6 Oct. 2009.

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49. Online video clip Cite as you would a short work from a Web site (see item 35).



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50. Online abstract Cite as you would an abstract of a journal article (see item 29), giving whatever print information is available, followed by the medium and your date of access. If you found the abstract in an online periodical database, include the name of the database after the print publication information (see item 40).


Turner, Fred. “Romantic Automatism: Art, Technology, and Collaborative Labor in Cold War America.” Abstract. Journal of Visual Culture 7.1 (2008): 5. Web. 25 Oct. 2009.

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51. Online editorial or letter to the editor Cite as you would an editorial or a letter to the editor in a print publication (see item 31 or 32), adding information for a short work from a Web site (see item 35).


“Compromise Is Key with Religion at Work.” Editorial. StarTribune.com. Star Tribune, 18 June 2008. Web. 25 June 2009.

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52. Online review Begin the entry as you would for a review in a magazine or newspaper (see item 33). If the review is published in print as well as online, add publication information as for an article in a periodical (see items 25–28), the Web site on which the review appears, the medium, and your date of access. If the review is published only on the Web, add information as for a short work from a Web site (see item 35). If you found the review in a database, cite as in item 40.


Greer, W. R. “Who’s the Fairest One of All?” Rev. of Mirror, Mirror, by Gregory Maguire. Reviewsofbooks.com. Reviewsofbooks.com, 2003. Web. 26 Oct. 2009.

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53. E-mail message Begin with the writer’s name and the subject line. Then write “Message to” followed by the name of the recipient. End with the date of the message and the medium (“E-mail”).


Lowe, Walter. “Review Questions.” Message to the author. 15 Mar. 2009. E-mail.

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54. Posting to an online discussion list When possible, cite archived versions of postings. If you cannot locate an archived version, keep a copy of the posting for your records. Begin with the author’s name, followed by the title or subject line, in quotation marks (use the label “Online posting” if the posting has no title). Then proceed as for a short work from a Web site (see item 35).


Fainton, Peter. “Re: Backlash against New Labour.” Media Lens Message Board. Media Lens, 7 May 2008. Web. 2 June 2008.

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55. Entry in a wiki A wiki is an online reference that is openly edited by its users. Treat an entry in a wiki as you would a short work from a Web site (see item 35). Because wiki content is, by definition, collectively edited and can be updated frequently, do not include an author. Give the title of the entry; the name of the wiki, italicized; the sponsor or publisher of the wiki (use “N.p.” if there is none); the date of the last update; the medium; and your date of access.


“Hip Hop Music.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Sept. 2008. Web. 18 Mar. 2009.

“Negation in Languages.” UniLang.org. UniLang, 25 Oct. 2004. Web. 9 June 2009.


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Audio and visual sources (including online versions)

56. Digital file A digital file is any document or image that exists in digital form, independent of a Web site. To cite a digital file, begin with information required for the source (such as a photograph, a report, a sound recording, or a radio program), following the guidelines for the specific source. Then for the medium, indicate the type of file: “JPEG file,” “PDF file,” “MP3 file,” and so on.



“Scenes from a Recession.” This American Life. Narr. Ira Glass. NPR, 30 Mar. 2009. MP3 file.

National Institute of Mental Health. What Rescue Workers Can Do. Washington: US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2006. PDF file.

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57. Podcast If you view or listen to a podcast online, cite it as you would a short work from a Web site (see item 35). If you download the podcast and view or listen to it on a computer or portable player, cite it as a digital file (see item 56).


Podcast online


“Calculating the Demand for Charter Schools.” Narr. David Guenthner. Texas PolicyCast. Texas Public Policy Foundation, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2009.


Podcast downloaded as digital file


“Calculating the Demand for Charter Schools.” Narr. David Guenthner. Texas PolicyCast. Texas Public Policy Foundation, 28 Aug. 2008. MP3 file.

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58. Musical score For both print and online versions, begin with the composer’s name; the title of the work, italicized MLA list of works cited (unless it is named by form, number, and key); and the date of composition. For a print source, give the place of publication; the name of the publisher and date of publication; and the medium. For an online source, give the title of the Web site; the publisher or sponsor of the site; the date of Web publication; the medium; and your date of access.


Handel, G. F. Messiah: An Oratorio. N.d. CCARH Publications: Scores and Parts. Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities, 2003. Web. 5 Jan. 2009.

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59. Sound recording Begin with the name of the person you want to emphasize: the composer, conductor (“Cond.”), or performer (“Perf.”). For a long work, give the title, italicized (unless it is named by form, number, and key); the names of pertinent artists (such as performers, readers, or musicians); and the orchestra and conductor, if relevant. End with the manufacturer, the date, and the medium (“CD,” “Audiocassette”).


Bizet, Georges. Carmen. Perf. Jennifer Laramore, Thomas Moser, Angela Gheorghiu, and Samuel Ramey. Bavarian State Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Giuseppe Sinopoli. Warner, 1996. CD.

For a song, put the title in quotation marks. If you include the name of the album or CD, italicize it.


Blige, Mary J. “Be without You.” The Breakthrough. Geffen, 2005. CD.

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60. FilmTypically, begin with the title, italicized. Then give the director and the lead actors (“Perf.”) or narrator (“Narr.”); the distributor; the year of the film’s release; and the medium (“Film,” “Videocassette”). If your paper emphasizes a person or category of people involved with the film, you may begin with those names and titles, as in the first example in item 61.


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61. DVDTo cite the film as a whole, use the order of elements as in item 60. If your paper emphasizes a particular person, begin with that person's name and title, as shown here. For a film on DVD, cite as you would a film, giving “DVD” as the medium.


Forster, Marc, dir. Finding Neverland. Perf. Johnny Depp, Kate Winslet, Julie Christie, Radha Mitchell, and Dustin Hoffman. Miramax, 2004. DVD.

For any other work on DVD, such as an educational work or a game, cite as you would a film, giving whatever information is available about the author, director, distributor, and so on.


Across the Drafts: Students and Teachers Talk about Feedback. Harvard Expository Writing Program, 2005. DVD.

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62. Special feature on a DVD Begin with the title of the feature, in quotation marks, and the names of any important contributors, as for films or DVDs (item 60 or 61). End with information about the DVD, as in item 61.


“Sweeney’s London.” Prod. Eric Young. Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. Dir. Tim Burton. DreamWorks, 2007. DVD. Disc 2.

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63. CD-ROM Treat a CD-ROM as you would any other source, but add the medium (“CD-ROM”).


“Pimpernel.” The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton, 2000. CD-ROM.

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64. Computer software or video game List the developer or author of the software (if any); the title, italicized; the distributor and date of publication; and the platform or medium.


Firaxis Games. Sid Meier’s Civilization Revolution. Take-Two Interactive, 2008. Xbox 360.

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65. Radio or television program Begin with the title of the radio segment or television episode (if there is one), in quotation marks. Then give the title of the program or series, italicized; relevant information about the program, such as the writer (“By”), director (“Dir.”), performers (“Perf.”), or narrator (“Narr.”); the network; the local station (if any) and location; the date of broadcast; and the medium (“Television,” “Radio”). For a program you accessed online, after the information about the program give the network, the original broadcast date, the title of the Web site, the medium (“Web”), and your date of access.


“Machines of the Gods.” Ancient Discoveries. History Channel. 14 Oct. 2008. Television.

“Elif Shafak: Writing under a Watchful Eye.” Fresh Air. Narr. Terry Gross. Natl. Public Radio, 6 Feb. 2007. NPR.org. Web. 22 Feb. 2009.

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66. Radio or television interview Begin with the name of the person who was interviewed, followed by the word “Interview” and the interviewer’s name, if relevant. End with information about the program as in item 65.


De Niro, Robert, Barry Levinson, and Art Linson. Interview by Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose. PBS. WGBH, Boston, 13 Oct. 2008. Television.

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67. Live performance For a live performance of a concert, a play, a ballet, or an opera, begin with the title of the work performed, italicized. Then give the author or composer of the work (“By”); relevant information such as the director (“Dir.”), the choreographer (“Chor.”), the conductor (“Cond.”), or the major performers (“Perf.”); the theater, ballet, or opera company, if any; the theater and location; the date of the performance; and the label “Performance.”


The Brothers Size. By Tarell Alvin McCraney. Dir. Bijan Sheibani. Young Vic Theatre, London. 15 Oct. 2008. Performance.

Symphony no. 4 in G. By Gustav Mahler. Cond. Mark Wigglesworth. Perf. Juliane Banse and Boston Symphony Orch. Symphony Hall, Boston. 17 Apr. 2009. Performance.

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68. Lecture or public address Begin with the speaker’s name, followed by the title of the lecture (if any), in quotation marks; the organization sponsoring the lecture; the location; the date; and a label such as “Lecture” or “Address.”


Wellbery, David E. “On a Sentence of Franz Kafka.” Franke Inst. for the Humanities. Gleacher Center, Chicago. 1 Feb. 2006. Lecture.

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69. Work of art Cite the artist’s name; the title of the artwork, italicized; the date of composition; the medium of composition (for instance, “Lithograph on paper,” “Photograph,” “Charcoal on paper”); and the institution and city in which the artwork is located. For artworks found online, omit the medium of composition and include the title of the Web site, the medium (“Web”), and your date of access.


Constable, John. Dedham Vale. 1802. Oil on canvas. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Hessing, Valjean. Caddo Myth. 1976. Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha. Joslyn Art Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2009.

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70. Cartoon Give the cartoonist’s name; the title of the cartoon, if it has one, in quotation marks; the label “Cartoon” or “Comic strip”; publication information; and the medium. To cite an online cartoon, instead of publication information give the title of the Web site, the sponsor or publisher, the medium, and your date of access.


Keefe, Mike. “Content of Character.” Cartoon. Denverpost.com. Denver Post, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2008.

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71. Advertisement Name the product or company being advertised, followed by the word “Advertisement.” Give publication information for the source in which the advertisement appears.


Truth by Calvin Klein. Advertisement. Vogue Dec. 2000: 95-98. Print.

Arbella Insurance. Advertisement. Boston.com. NY Times, n.d. Web. 3 June 2009.

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72. Map or chart Cite a map or a chart as you would a book or a short work within a longer work. Use the word “Map” or “Chart” following the title. Add the medium and, for an online source, the sponsor or publisher and the date of access.


Joseph, Lori, and Bob Laird. “Driving While Phoning Is Dangerous.” Chart. USA Today 16 Feb. 2001: 1A. Print.

“Serbia.” Map. Syrena Maps. Syrena, 2 Feb. 2001. Web. 17 Mar. 2009.

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Other sources (including online versions)

This section includes a variety of sources not covered elsewhere. For online sources, consult the appropriate model in this section and also see items 34–55.

73. Government document Treat the government agency as the author, giving the name of the government followed by the name of the department and the agency, if any. For print sources, add the medium at the end of the entry. For online sources, follow the model for an entire Web site (item 34) or a short work from a Web site (item 35).



Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Dev. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Govt. Services Can., 2000. Print.

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74. Historical document To cite a historical document, such as the US Constitution or the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, begin with the document author, if it has one, and then give the document title, neither italicized nor in quotation marks, and the document date. For a print version, continue as for a selection in an anthology (see item 15) or for a book (with the title not italicized). For an online version, cite as a short work from a Web site (see item 35).


Jefferson, Thomas. First Inaugural Address. 1801. The American Reader. Ed. Diane Ravitch. New York: Harper, 1990. 42-44. Print.

The Virginia Declaration of Rights. 1776. A Chronology of US Historical Documents. U of Oklahoma Coll. of Law, 2008. Web. 23 Feb. 2009.

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75. Legal source


Legislative act (law)

Begin with the name of the act, neither italicized nor in quotation marks. Then provide the act’s Public Law number; its Statutes at Large volume and page numbers; its date of enactment; and the medium of publication.


Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996. Pub. L. 104-231. 110 Stat. 3048. 2 Oct. 1996. Print.


Court case

Name the first plaintiff and the first defendant. Then give the volume, name, and page number of the law report; the court name; the year of the decision; and publication information. Do not italicize the name of the case. (In the text of the paper, the name of the case is italicized; see item 19.)


Utah v. Evans. 536 US 452. Supreme Court of the US. 2002. Supreme Court Collection. Legal Information Inst., Cornell U Law School, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2008.

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76. Pamphlet or brochure Cite as you would a book (see items 7–24).


Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Dept. of Jury Commissioner. A Few Facts about Jury Duty. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 2004. Print.

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77. Unpublished dissertation Begin with the author’s name, followed by the dissertation title in quotation marks; the abbreviation “Diss.”; the name of the institution; the year the dissertation was accepted; and the medium of the dissertation.


Jackson, Shelley. “Writing Whiteness: Contemporary Southern Literature in Black and White.” Diss. U of Maryland, 2000. Print.

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78. Published dissertation For dissertations that have been published in book form, italicize the title. After the title and before the book’s publication information, give the abbreviation “Diss.,” the name of the institution, and the year the dissertation was accepted. Add the medium of publication at the end.


Damberg, Cheryl L. Healthcare Reform: Distributional Consequences of an Employer Mandate for Workers in Small Firms. Diss. Rand Graduate School, 1995. Santa Monica: Rand, 1996. Print.

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79. Abstract of a dissertation Cite an abstract as you would an unpublished dissertation. After the dissertation date, give the abbreviation DA or DAI (for Dissertation Abstracts or Dissertation Abstracts International), followed by the volume and issue numbers; the year of publication; inclusive page numbers or, if the abstract is not numbered, the item number; and the medium of publication. For an abstract accessed in an online database, give the item number in place of the page number, followed by the name of the database, the medium, and your date of access.


Chen, Shu-Ling. “Mothers and Daughters in Morrison, Tan, Marshall, and Kincaid.” Diss. U of Washington, 2000. DAI 61.6 (2000): ATT9975963. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Web. 22 Feb. 2009.

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80. Published proceedings of a conference Cite as you would a book, adding the name, date, and location of the conference after the title.


Urgo, Joseph R., and Ann J. Abadie, eds. Faulkner and Material Culture. Proc. of Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha Conf., 25-29 July 2004, U of Mississippi. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2007. Print.

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81. Paper in conference proceedings Cite as you would a selection in an anthology (see item 15), giving information about the conference after the title and editors of the conference proceedings (see item 80).


Henninger, Katherine R. “Faulkner, Photography, and a Regional Ethics of Form.” Faulkner and Material Culture. Ed. Joseph R. Urgo and Ann J. Abadie. Proc. of Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha Conf., 25–29 July 2004, U of Mississippi. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2007. 121-38. Print.

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82. Published interview Name the person interviewed, followed by the title of the interview (if there is one). If the interview does not have a title, include the word “Interview” after the interviewee’s name. Give publication information for the work in which the interview was published.


Armstrong, Lance. “Lance in France.” Sports Illustrated 28 June 2004: 46+. Print.

If the name of the interviewer is relevant, include it after the name of the interviewee.


Prince. Interview by Bilge Ebiri. Yahoo! Internet Life 7.6 (2001): 82-85. Print.

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83. Personal interview To cite an interview that you conducted, begin with the name of the person interviewed. Then write “Personal interview” or “Telephone interview,” followed by the date of the interview.


Akufo, Dautey. Personal interview. 11 Apr. 2009.

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84. Personal letter To cite a letter that you received, begin with the writer’s name and add the phrase “Letter to the author,” followed by the date. Add the medium (“MS” for “manuscript,” or a handwritten letter; “TS” for “typescript,” or a typed letter).


Primak, Shoshana. Letter to the author. 6 May 2009. TS.

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85. Published letter Begin with the writer of the letter, the words “Letter to” and the recipient, and the date of the letter (use “N.d.” if the letter is undated). Then add the title of the collection and proceed as for a selection in an anthology (see item 15).


Wharton, Edith. Letter to Henry James. 28 Feb. 1915. Henry James and Edith Wharton: Letters, 1900-1915. Ed. Lyall H. Powers. New York: Scribner’s, 1990. 323-26. Print.

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86. Manuscript Give the author, a title or a description of the manuscript, and the date of composition, followed by the abbreviation “MS” for “manuscript” (handwritten) or “TS” for “typescript.” Add the name and location of the institution housing the material. For a manuscript found online, give the preceding information but omit “MS” or “TS.” Then list the title of the Web site, the medium (“Web”), and your date of access.


Arendt, Hannah. Between Past and Present. N.d. 1st draft. Hannah Arendt Papers. MS Div., Lib. of Cong. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Web. 24 Apr. 2009.

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