The Everyday Writer


Documenting Sources
MLA Documentation
• MLA: In-Text Citations
• MLA: Explanatory and
  Bibliographic Notes
• MLA: Works Cited
• MLA: Sample Essay
APA Documentation
CSE Documentation
Chicago Documentation



Book-Specific Resources / Documenting Sources /
MLA Format: Works Cited

A list of works cited is an alphabetical list of the sources you have referred to in your essay. (If your instructor asks you to list everything you have read as background, call the list Works Consulted.) Here are some guidelines for preparing such a list:
  • Start your list on a separate page after the text of your essay and any notes.
  • Continue the consecutive numbering of pages.
  • Type the heading Works Cited, not underlined, italicized, or in quotation marks, centered one inch from the top of the page.
  • Start each entry flush with the left margin; indent subsequent lines one-half inch or five spaces. Double-space the entire list.
  • List sources alphabetically by author's (or editor's) last name. If the author is unknown, alphabetize the source by the first major word of the title.
The sample works-cited entries that follow observe MLA's advice to underline words that are often italicized in print. If you wish to use italics instead, check with your instructor first.

Works Cited Index
BOOKS:
1. One author
2. Two or three authors
3. Four or more authors
4. Organization as author
5. Unknown author
6. Two or more books by the same author(s)
7. Editor(s)
8. Author and editor
9. Anthology
10. Work in an anthology or chapter in a book with an editor
11. Two or more items from an anthology
12. Translation
13. Book in a language other than English
14. Edition other than the first
15. Multivolume work
16. Preface, forward, introduction, or afterword
17. Entry in a reference work
18. Book that is part of a series
19. Republication
20. Publisher's imprint
21. Book with a title within the title
22. Government publication
23. Sacred text
PERIODICALS:
24. Article in a journal paginated by volume
25. Article in a journal paginated by issue
26. Article that skips pages
27. Article with a title within the title
28. Article in a monthly magazine
29. Article in a weekly magazine
30. Article in a newspaper
31. Article in a collection of reprinted articles
32. Editorial or letter to the editor
33. Review
34. Unsigned Article
ELECTRONIC SOURCES:
35. Article from an online database or subscription service
36. Work from a personal web site
37. Work from a professional web site
38. Entire web site
39. Academic course or department website
40. Online Book
41. Online Poem
42. Article in an online journal, magazine, or newspaper
43. Entry in an online reference work
44. Online editorial or letter to the editor
45. Online Review
46. Online film or film clip
47. Online work of art
48. Online map or chart
49. Online advertisement
50. Posting to a discussion group
51. Email
52. Real-time communication
53. Other online sources
54. Computer software or video game
55. Periodically revised CD-ROM
56. Single-issue CD-ROM
57. Multi-disc CD-ROM
OTHER SOURCES:
58. Report or pamphlet
59. Published proceedings of a conference
60. Unpublished dissertation or thesis
61. Published dissertation
62. Dissertation abstract
63. Unpublished or personal interview
64. Published interview
65. Broadcast interview
66. Unpublished letter
67. Manuscript or other unpublished work
68. Legal source
69. Film, video, or DVD
70. Television or radio program
71. Sound recording
72. Musical composition
73. Lecture or speech
74. Live performance
75. Work of art or photograph
76. Map or chart
77. Advertisement
78. Cartoon or comic strip



BOOKS

Winchester, Simon. The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003.



Give the first author listed on the title page, last name first; then list the name(s) of the other
author(s) in regular order, with a comma between authors and the word and before the last one.

Martineau, Jane, Desmond Shawe-Taylor, and Jonathan Bate. Shakespeare in Art. London: Merrell, 2003.



Give the first author listed on the title page, last name first, followed by a comma and et al. ("and others"), or list all the names, since the use of et al. diminishes the importance of the other contributors.

Lupton, Ellen, Jennifer Tobias, Alicia Imperiale, Grace Jeffers, and Randi Mates. Skin: Surface, Substance, and Design. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2002.



Give the name of the group listed on the title page as the author, even if the same group published the book.

Getty Trust Publications. Seeing the Getty Center/Seeing the Getty Gardens. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2000.



Begin the entry with the title, and list the work alphabetically by the first word of the title after any initial A, An, or The.

New Concise World Atlas. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003.



Arrange the entries alphabetically by title. Include the name(s) of the author(s) in the first entry, but in subsequent entries, use three hyphens followed by a period.

Lorde, Audre. A Burst of Light. Ithaca: Firebrand, 1988.

- - -. Sister Outsider. Trumansburg: Crossing, 1984.

If you cite a work by one author who is also listed as the first coauthor of another work you cite, list the single-author work first, and repeat the author's name in the entry for the coauthored work. Also repeat the author's name if you cite a work in which that author is listed as the first of a different set of coauthors. In other words, use three hyphens only when the work is by exactly the same author(s) as the previous entry.



Treat an editor as an author, but add a comma and ed. (or eds.).

Wall, Cheryl A., ed. Changing Our Own Words: Essays On Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1989.



If you have cited the body of the text, begin with the author's name. Then list the editor(s), introduced by Ed. ("edited by"), after the title.

James, Henry. Portrait of a Lady. Ed. Leon Edel. Boston: Houghton, 1963.

If you have cited the editor's contribution, begin the entry with the name of the editor(s), followed by a comma and ed. (or eds.). Then list the author's name, introduced by By, after the title.

Edel, Leon, Ed. Portrait of a Lady. By Henry James. Boston: Houghton, 1963.



Begin with the name of the editor(s) or compiler(s), followed by the abbreviation ed. (or eds.) or comp. (or comps.). Then list the title of the anthology, city of publication, name of the publisher, and year of publication.

Walker, Dale L., ed. Westward: A Fictional History of the American West. New York: Forge, 2003.



List the author(s) of the selection or chapter; its title; the title of the book in which the selection or chapter appears; Ed. And the name(s) of the editor(s) in regular order; the publication information; and the inclusive page numbers of the selection.

Komunyakaa, Yusef. "Facing It." The Seagull Reader. Ed. Joseph Kelly. New York: Norton, 2000. 126-27.

If the selection was originally published in a periodical and you are asked to supply information for this original source, use the following format. Rpt. is the abbreviation for reprinted.

Byatt, A. S. "The Thing In The Forest." New Yorker 3 June 2002: 80-89. Rpt. in The O. Henry Prize Stories 2003. Ed. Laura Furman. New York: Anchor, 2003. 3-22.

For inclusive page numbers up to 99, note all digits in the second number. For numbers above 99, note only the last two digits and any others that change in the second number (115-18, 1378-79, 296-301).



Include the anthology itself in your list of works cited (see model 9, above). Also list each selection separately by its author and title, followed by a cross-reference to the anthology.

Estleman, Loren D. "Big Tim Magoon and the Wild West." Walker 391-404.

Salzer, Susan K. "Miss Libbie Tells All." Walker 199-212.



Begin the entry with the author's name, and give the translator's name, preceded by Trans. ("Translated by"), after the title.

Hietamies, Laila. Red Moon over White Sea. Trans. Borje Vahamaki. Beaverton, ON: Aspasia, 2000.



If necessary, you may provide a translation of the book's title in brackets. You may also choose to give the English name of a foreign city in brackets.

Benedetti, Mario. La borra del café [The Coffee Grind]. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, 2000.



Add the information, in abbreviated form, after the title.

Walker, John A. Art in the Age of Mass Media. 3rd ed. London: Pluto, 2001.



If you cite only one volume, give the volume number after the title. You have the option of giving the number of volumes in the complete work after the date, using the abbreviation vols.

Ch'oe, Yong-Ho, Peter Lee, and William Theodore De Barry, eds. Sources of Korean Tradition. Vol. 2. New York: Columbia UP, 2000. 2 vols.

If you cite two or more volumes, give the number of volumes in the complete work after the title.

Ch'oe, Yong-Ho, Peter Lee, and William Theodore De Barry, eds. Sources of Korean Tradition. 2 vols. New York: Columbia UP, 2000.



List the author of the item, the item title, the title of the book, and the book's author (preceded by By) or editor (preceded by Ed.). List the inclusive page numbers of the item at the end of the entry.

Atwan, Robert. Foreword. The Best American Essays 2002. Ed. Stephen Jay Gould. Boston: Houghton, 2002. viii-xii.



List the author of the entry, if known. If no author is identified, begin with the title. For a well-known encyclopedia, just note the edition and year of publication or designate the edition by its year of publication. If the entries in the reference work are in alphabetical order, you need not give volume or page numbers.

Kettering, Alison McNeil. "Art Nouveau." World Book Encyclopedia. 2002 ed.



Cite the series name as it appears on the title page, followed by any series number.

Nichanian, Marc, and Vartan Matiossian, eds. Yeghishe Charents: Poet of the Revolution. Armenian Studies Ser. 5. Costa Mesa: Mazda, 2003.



To cite a modern edition of an older book, add the original publication date, followed by a period, after the title.

Scott, Walter. Kenilworth. 1821. New York: Dodd, 1956.



If a book is published under a publisher's imprint (indicated on the title page), hyphenate the imprint and the publisher's name.

Gilligan, Carol. The Birth of Pleasure: A New Map of Love. New York: Vintage-Random, 2003.



Do not underline or italicize the title of a book within the title of a book you are citing. Underline or italicize and enclose in quotation marks the title of a short work within a book title.

Mullaney, Julie. Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things: A Reader's Guide. New York: Continuum, 2002.

Rhynes, Martha. "I, Too, Sing America": The Story of Langston Hughes. Greensboro: Morgan, 2002.



Begin with the author, if identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the government, followed by the agency and any subdivision. Use abbreviations if they can be readily understood. Then give the title. For congressional documents, cite the number and session plus chamber; the type (Report, Resolution, Document), in abbreviated form; and the number of the material. If you cite the Congressional Record, give only the date and page number. Otherwise, end with the publication information; the publisher is often the Government Printing Office (GPO).

Gregg, Judd. Report to Accompany the Genetic Information Act of 2003. US 108th Cong., 1st sess. S. Rept. 108-22. 2003. Washington: GPO, 2003.

Kinsella, Kevin, and Victoria Velkoff. An Aging World: 2001. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population Division. Washington: GPO, 2001.

United States. Natl. Council on Disability. Reconstructing Fair Housing. Washington: Natl. Council on Disability, 2001.



To cite individual published editions of sacred books, begin the entry with the title. For versions of the Bible in which the version is not part of the title, list the version after the title. If you are not citing a particular edition, sacred texts should not appear in the works-cited list.

Quran: The Final Testament (Authorized English Version) with Arabic Text. Trans. Rashad Khalifa. Fremont: Universal Unity, 2000.


PERIODICALS



Follow the journal title with the volume number in arabic numerals.

Gigante, Denise. "The Monster in the Rainbow: Keats and the Science of Life." PMLA 117 (2002): 433-48.



If each issue begins with page 1, follow the volume number with a period and the issue number.

Zivley, Sherry Lutz. "Sylvia Plath's Transformations of Modernist Paintings." College Literature 29.3 (2002): 35-56.



When an article skips pages, give only the first page number and a plus sign.

Tyrnauer, Matthew. "Empire by Martha." Vanity Fair Sept. 2002: 364+.



Enclose in single quotation marks the title of a short work within an article title.

Frey, Leonard H. "Irony and Point of View in 'That Evening Sun.'" Faulkner Studies 2 (1953): 33-40.

Underline or italicize the title of a book within an article title.



Put the month (or months, hyphenated) before the year. Separate the date and page number(s) with a colon.

Fonda, Daren. "Saving the Dead." Life Apr. 2000: 69-72.



Include the day, month, and year in that order, with no commas between them. Separate the date and page number(s) with a colon.

Gilgoff, Dan. "Unusual Suspects." US News and World Report 26 Nov. 2001: 51.



After the author and title of the article, give the name of the newspaper, underlined or italicized, as it appears on the front page but without any initial A, An, or The. Add the city in brackets after the name if it is not part of the title. Then give the date and the edition (if listed), followed by a colon, a space, the section number or letter (if listed), and the page number(s). If the article does not appear on consecutive pages, give only the first page number and a plus sign.

Vogel, Carol. "With Huge Gift, the Whitney Is No Longer a Poor Cousin." New York Times 3 Aug. 2002, late ed.: A1+.



First give the citation for the original publication. Then give the citation for the collection in which the article is reprinted. Insert Rpt. in ("Reprinted in") between the two citations. Comp. Stands for "compiled by." Ed. and Trans. are other common abbreviations used in citing a collection.

Quindlen, Anna. "Playing God on No Sleep." Newsweek 2 July 2001: 64. Rpt. in The Best American Magazine Writing 2002. Comp. Amer. Soc. of Magazine Eds. New York: Perennial, 2002. 458-62.



Use the label Editorial or Letter, not underlined, italicized, or in quotation marks, after the title or, if there is no title, after the author's name.

Magee, Doug. "Soldier's Home." Editorial. Nation 26 Mar. 1988: 400-01.



List the reviewer's name and the title of the review, if any, followed by Rev. of and the title and author or director of the work reviewed. Then add the publication information for the periodical in which the review appears.

Schwarz, Benjamin. Rev. of The Second World War: A Short History, by R. A. C. Parker. Atlantic Monthly May 2002: 110-11.



Begin with the article title, alphabetizing the entry according to the first word after any initial A, An, or The.

"Performance of the Week." Time 6 Oct. 2003: 18.


ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Electronic sources such as CD-ROMS, Web sites, and email differ from print sources in the ease with which they can be and frequently are changed, updated, or even eliminated. In addition, as the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers notes, electronic media "so far lack agreed-on means of organizing works"; as a result, it is often difficult for readers to find electronic sources. As the Handbook adds, "References to electronic works therefore must provide more information than print citations generally offer." The most commonly cited electronic sources are documents from an Internet site, such as essays, articles, poems, and other short works within a reference database, a professional site, or an online periodical. The entry for such a source may include up to five basic elements, as in the following list, but must always include the last two.
  • Author. List the last name first, followed by a comma and the first name, and end with a period. If no author is given, begin the entry with the title. For variations on authors, see models 2-8 in Chapter 52.
  • Title. Enclose the title and subtitle of the document in quotation marks unless you are citing an entire site or an online book, both of which should be underlined or italicized. Capitalize all major words, and end with a period inside the closing quotation marks. (See 48d for more on capitalizing titles.)
  • Print publication information. Give any information the document provides about any previous or simultaneous publication in print.
  • Electronic publication information. List the following items, with a period after each one: the title of the site, underlined or italicized, with all major words capitalized; the editor(s) of the site, preceded by Ed.; the version number of the site, preceded by Vers.; the date of electronic publication or of the latest update, with the month, if any, abbreviated except for May, June, and July; and the name of any institution or organization that sponsors the site. (The sponsor's name usually appears at the bottom of the site's home page.)
  • Access information. Give the most recent date you accessed the document and its URL, enclosed in angle brackets; put a period after the closing bracket. In general, give the complete URL, including the opening http, ftp, gopher, telnet, or news. If the URL is very long and complicated, however, give the URL of the site's search page, if there is one, instead. If the site does not provide a usable URL for individual documents and citing the search page is inappropriate, give the URL of the site's home page, if you know it. In this situation, if a user can reach the document from the home page by clicking on a sequence of links, do the following: after the URL, give the word Path followed by a colon, and then give the sequence of links. Use semicolons between the links and a period at the end. Whenever a URL will not fit on one line, break it only after a slash, and do not add a hyphen at the break or allow your word-processing program to add one.
Further guidelines for citing electronic sources can be found in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and online at http://www.mla.org.


For a work from an online database, begin by giving the author's name (unless no author is given), the title of the work in quotation marks, as well as the date and place of publication if it is a book (if applicable). Next, give the name of the online database (underlined or italicized), the name of its editor (if any), preceded by Ed., the date of the most recent revision, and the name of any organization or institution with which the database is affiliated. End with the date of access and the URL, in angle brackets.

"Bolivia: Elecciones Presidenciales de 2002." Political Database of the Americas. 1999. Georgetown U and Organization of Amer. States. 12 Nov. 2003 <http://www.georgetown.edu/pdba/Elecdata/Bolivia/pres02B.html>.

If you accessed a work through a library's subscription to a service, after the information about the work give the name of the database, underlined or italicized, if you know it; the name of the service; the library; the date of access; and the URL of the service's home page, in angle brackets, if you know it.

Gordon, Andrew. "It's Not Such a Wonderful Life: The Neurotic George Bailey." American Journal of Psychoanalysis 54.3 (1994): 219-33. PsycINFO. EBSCO. Graduate Center Lib., City U of New York. 26 Oct. 2003 <http://www.epnet.com>.

To cite a work from a personal online subscription service such as America Online, follow the guidelines throughout this chapter for the appropriate type of work, such as an online book or an article in an online periodical. If possible, end the entry with the URL of the specific work or, if it is very long and complicated, the URL of the service's search page. If, however, the service supplies no URL or one that is not accessible to other subscribers, you will need to provide other access information. Specifically, after the date, depending on the service's retrieval system, give either the word Keyword followed by a colon and the keyword you used or the word Path followed by a colon and the sequence of links you followed, with semicolons between the links.

"Steps in Reading a Poem." AOL's Academic Assistance Center. 11 Feb. 2004. Path: Reading & Learning; Poetry; Analysis and Interpreting Poetry.

Weeks, W. William. "Beyond The Ark." Nature Conservancy Mar.-Apr. 1999. America Online. 2 Apr. 1999. Keyword: Ecology.



Include the name of the person who created the site; the title, underlined or italicized, or (if there is no title) a description such as Home page; the date of the last update, if given; the access information; and the site's URL.

Lunsford, Andrea A. Home page. 15 Mar. 2003. 17 May 2004 <http://www.stanford.edu/~lunsfor1/>.



Include the author (if available) and title of the document, followed by the name of the Web site, underlined or italicized; the date of publication or latest update; and the name of the institution or organization associated with the site. Be sure to include the name of the editor (if applicable); the date of access; and the document's URL, in angle brackets.

"Important Dates in the Women's Rights Movement." HistoryChannel.com. 2003. History Channel. 13 Mar. 2003 <http://historychannel.com>. Path: Women's History; Special FeatureŠŠWomen's Suffrage; The History of Women's Suffrage in America; Timeline.

Stauder, Ellen Keck. "Darkness Audible: Negative Capability and Mark Doty's 'Nocturne in Black and Gold.'" Romantic Circles Praxis Series. Ed. Orrin Wang. 2003. 28 Sept. 2003 <http://www.rc.umd.edu/praxis/poetics/stauder/stauder.html>.



Follow the guidelines for a specific work from the web, but begin with the title of the entire site and the name of the editor(s), if any.

Electronic Poetry Center. Ed. Charles Bernstein, Kenneth Goldsmith, Martin Spinelli, and Patrick Durgin. 2003. Poetics Program/Dept. of Media Study, SUNY Buffalo. 26 Sept. 2003 <http://wings.buffalo.edu/epc/>.

Weather.com. 2003. Weather Channel Interactive. 13 Mar. 2003 <http://www.weather.com>.



For the site of an academic course, give the name of the instructor, the title of the course, a description such as course Home page, the dates of the course, the name of the department, the name of the institution, the date of access, and the URL.

Lunsford, Andrea A. Memory and Media. Course home page. Sept.-Dec. 2002. Dept. of English, Stanford U. 13 Mar. 2003 <http://www.stanford.edu/class/english12sc>.

For the site of an academic department, give the name of the department, such as English; a description such as Dept. home page; the name of the institution; and the access information.

English. Dept. home page. Amherst Coll. 4 Nov. 2003 <http://www.amherst.edu/˜english/>.



Cite an online book as you would a print book. After the print publication information (city, publisher, and year), if any, give the date of access and the URL, in angle brackets.

Euripides. The Trojan Women. Trans. Gilbert Murray. New York: Oxford UP, 1915. 12 Oct. 2003 <http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/eurip/trojan.htm>.



Include the poet's name and the title of the poem, followed by the print publication information for the poem (if applicable). End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the name of the organization or institution that sponsors the site (if any), the date of electronic publication, the date of access, and the URL in angle brackets.

Muench, Simone. "The Melos of Medusa." Notebook. Knife. Mentholatum. Grand Rapids: New Michigan Press, 2003. Verse Daily. 23 July 2003. 9 Nov. 2003 <http://www.versedaily.org/melosmedusa.shtml>.



Cite the article as you would an article from a print journal (see models 24 and 25), magazine (see models 28 and 29), or newspaper (see model 30). End with the range or total number of pages, paragraphs, parts, or other sections, if numbered; the date of access; and the URL, in angle brackets.

Burt, Stephen. "The True Legacy of Marianne Moore, Modernist Monument." Slate 11 Nov. 2003. 12 Nov. 2003 <http://slate.msn.com/id/2091081/>.

Gallagher, Brian. "Greta Garbo Is Sad: Some Historical Reflections on the Paradoxes of Stardom in the American Film Industry, 1910-1960." Images: A Journal of Film and Popular Culture 3 (1997): 7 pts. 7 Aug. 2002 <http://imagesjournal.com/issue03/infocus.htm>.

Shea, Christopher. "Five Truths about Tuition." New York Times on the Web 9 Nov. 2003. 11 Nov. 2003 <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/09/edlife/1109sht.html>.



Cite the entry as you would an entry from a print reference work (see model 17). End with the online access information, including the sponsor, date of access, and the URL in angle brackets.

"France." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 2003. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 13 Mar. 2003 <http://search.eb.com>.



Include the word Editorial or Letter following the title. If the letter is untitled, insert Letter after the author's name. End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the date of electronic publication, the date of access, and the URL, in angle brackets.

"The Funding Gap." Editorial. Washingtonpost.com 5 Nov. 2003. 9 Nov. 2003 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/a1087-2003nov5.html>.

Piccato, Pablo. Letter. New York Times on the Web 9 Nov. 2003. 9 Nov. 2003 <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/09/opinion/l09immi.html>.



Begin with the author's name and the title of the review (if any), followed by Rev. of, the title of the reviewed work, and the name of the work's author, editor, or director. End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the date of electronic publication, the date of access, and the URL, in angle brackets.

Kryah, Joshua. Rev. of Eating in the Underworld, by rachel zucker. Electronic Poetry Review 6 (2003). 9 Nov. 2003 <http://www.poetry.org/issues/issue6/text/prose/kryah1.htm>.



In general, start with the name of the director; then give the title of the film, underlined or italicized, and the date of its release. End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the date of access, and the URL, in angle brackets.

Moore, Michael, dir. Bowling for Columbine. 2002. Bowlingforcolumbine.com. 30 Sept. 2003 <http://www.bowlingforcolumbine.com/media/clips/index.php>.



Include the name of the artist; the work's title, underlined or italicized; date the work was created; the name of the museum or other location; and the city. End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the date of access, and the URL in angle brackets.

Chagall, Marc. The Poet with the Birds. 1911. Minneapolis Inst. of Arts. 6 Oct. 2003 <http://www.artsmia.org/collection/search/art.cfm?id=1427>.



Begin with the title, and add the label Map or Chart. End with the online access information, including the name of the Web site, the date of access, and the URL, in angle brackets.

Australia. Map. Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection. 4 Nov. 2003 <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/australia/australia_rel99.jpg>.



Name the item or organization being advertised, add the word Advertisement, and then supply the online access information, including the name of the Web site, date of online publication, date of online access, and the URL, in angle brackets.

Microsoft. Advertisement. New York Times on the Web 11 Nov. 2003. 11 Nov. 2003 <http://www.nytimes.com>.



To cite a posting to an online discussion group such as a listserv or Usenet newsgroup, begin with the author's name; the title of the posting, in quotation marks; the description Online posting; and the date of posting. For a listserv posting, then give the name of the listserv; the date of access; and the URL of the listserv or the email address of its moderator. Always cite an archival version of the posting if one is available.

Daly, Catherine. "Poetry Slams." Online posting. 29 Aug. 2003. SUNY Buffalo Poetics Discussion List. 1 Oct. 2003 <http://listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu/archives/poetics.html>.

For a newsgroup posting, end with the date of access and the name of the newsgroup, in angle brackets, with the prefix news.

Stonehouse, Robert. "Repeated Words in Shakespeare's Sonnets." Online posting. 27 July 2003. 24 Sept. 2003 <news:humanities.lit.authors.shakespeare>.



Include the writer's name; the subject line of the message, in quotation marks; a description of the message that mentions the recipient; and the date of the message.

Harris, J. "Thoughts on Impromptu Stage Productions." Email to Sarah Eitzel. 16 July 2003.



In citing a posting in a forum such as a MUD, a MOO, or an IRC, include the name(s) of any specific speaker(s) you are citing; a description of the event; its date; the name of the forum; the date of access; and the URL. Always cite an archival version of the posting if one is available.

Hong, Billy. Billy's Final Draft: Homeless Essay. 14 Oct. 2003. LinguaMOO. 12 Nov. 2003 <http://lingua.utdallas.edu:7000/25871/>.



In citing other kinds of online sources, follow the guidelines given on pp. 385-386 of The Everyday Writer, Third Edition, but adapt them as necessary to the electronic medium. Here are examples of citations for a radio program and an interview, accessed online.

Komando, Kim. "E-mail Hacking and the Law." WCBS Radio. WCBS, New York. 28 Oct. 2003. 11 Nov. 2003 <http://wcbs880.com/komando/local_story_309135535.html>.

Ebert, Roger. Interview with Matthew Rothschild. Progressive. Aug. 2003. 5 Oct. 2003 <http://www.progressive.org/aug03/intv0803.html>.



Include the title, underlined or italicized, version number (if given), and publication information. If you are citing software that was downloaded, replace the publication information with the date of access and the URL, in angle brackets.

The Sims 2. Redwood City: Electronic Arts, 2004.

Web Cache Illuminator. Vers. 4.02. 12 Nov. 2003 <http://www.tucows.com/adnload/332309_126245.html>.



After the publication information for the print version, if any, of the text, give the medium (CD-ROM); the name of the company or group producing it; and the electronic publication date (month and year, if possible).

Ashenfelter, Orley, and Kathryn Graddy. "Auctions and the Price of Art." Journal of Economic Literature 41.3 (2003): 763-87. CD-ROM. Amer. Economic Assn. Sept. 2003.



Cite this kind of electronic source, which is not regularly updated, much like a book, but add the medium and, if appropriate, the number of the electronic edition, release, or version. If you are citing only a part of the source, indicate which part and end with the numbers of the part (pp. 78-83, 8 screens) if provided.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. CD-ROM. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003.



After indicating the medium, give either the total number of discs (3 discs) or, if you used material from only one, the number of that disc.

Iris: Immigration Research Information Service, Lawdesk. CD-ROM. Disc 2. Eagan, Mn: West, 2003.



OTHER SOURCES


Cite the report or pamphlet as you would a book.

Allen, Katherine, and Lee Rainie. Parents Online. Washington: Pew Internet and Amer. Life Project, 2002.

Murray, Alasdair. Corporate Social Responsibility in the EU. London: Centre for European Reform, 2003.



Cite proceedings as you would a book. Add any necessary information about the conference after the title if the title itself doesn't include enough information.

Cleary, John, and Gary Gurtler, eds. Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 2002. Boston: Brill Academic, 2003.



Enclose the title in quotation marks. Add the identification Diss. or MA thesis, MS thesis, and so on; the name of the university or professional school; a comma; and the year the dissertation or thesis was accepted.

Lecourt, Donna. "The Self in Motion: The Status of the (Student) Subject in Composition Studies." Diss. Ohio State U, 1993.



Cite a published dissertation as you would a book, adding the identification Diss., the name of the university, and the year the dissertation was accepted. Then give the publication information. If the dissertation was published by university microfilms international, add Ann Arbor: UMI and the year, and list the UMI number at the end of the entry.

Yau, Rittchell Ann. The Portrayal of Immigration in a Selection of Picture Books Published Since 1970. Diss. U of San Francisco, 2003. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2003. 3103491.



Begin with the author's name and the title of the dissertation, followed by Diss.; then give the name of the institution granting the author's degree and the date of the dissertation. If you use Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), include the DAI volume, year (in parentheses), and page number. If you cite a dissertation service that uses item numbers, replace the page number with item followed by the item number.

Huang-Tiller, Gillian C. "The Power of the Meta-Genre: Cultural, Sexual, and Racial Politics of the American Modernist Sonnet." Diss. U of Notre Dame, 2000. DAI 61 (2000): 1401.



List the person interviewed, and then use the label Telephone interview, Personal interview, or Email interview. End with the date(s) the interview took place.

Freedman, Sasha. Personal Interview. 10 Nov. 2003.



List the person interviewed and then the title of the interview. If the interview has no title, use the label Interview (not underlined, italicized, or in quotation marks), and identify the source.

Taylor, Max. "Max Taylor on Winning." Time 13 Nov. 2000: 66.



List the person interviewed and then the title of the interview. If the interview has no title, use the label Interview (not underlined, italicized, or in quotation marks) and the name of the interviewer, if pertinent. End with information about the program and the date(s) the interview took place.

Gyllenhaal, Maggie. Interview with Terry Gross. Fresh Air. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR, Boston. 30 Sept. 2003.



If the letter was sent to you, follow this form:

Lanois, Sophia. Letter to the Author. 25 Aug. 2003.



Begin with the author's name (if applicable) and the title or, if there is no title, a description of the material. Then note the form of the material (such as ms. for manuscript or ts. for typescript) and any identifying numbers assigned to it. End by giving the name and location of the library or research institution housing the material (if applicable).

Woolf, Virginia. "The Searchlight." Ts. Ser. III, Box 4, Item 184. Papers of Virginia Woolf, 1902-1956. Smith College, Northampton, MA.


To cite a legal case, give the name of the case with no underlining or quotation marks, followed by No. and the number of the case. End with the name of the court deciding the case and the year of the decision.

Eldred v. Ashcroft. No. 01-618. Supreme Ct. of the US. 15 Jan. 2003.

To cite an act, give the name of the act with no underlining or quotation marks, followed by Pub. L. (for "Public Law") and the Public Law number of the act. Then list the date it was enacted, followed by Stat. (for "Statutes at lLarge") and the statutes at large cataloging number of the act.

Museum and Library Services Act of 2003. Pub. L. 108-81. 25 Sept. 2003. Stat. 117.991.



In general, start with the title, underlined or italicized; then name the director, the distributor, and the year of release. Other contributors, such as writers or actors, may follow the director. If you cite a particular person's work, start the entry with that person's name. For a videocassette or DVD, include the original film release date (if relevant) and the label Videocassette or DVD.

The Hours. Dir. Stephen Daldry. Perf. Meryl Streep, Julianne Moore, and Nicole Kidman. Paramount and Miramax, 2002.

Damon, Matt, perf. The Bourne Identity. Dir. Doug Limon. Universal, 2003.

Jungle Fever. Dir. Spike Lee. 1991. DVD. Universal, 2003.



In general, begin with the title of the program, underlined or italicized. Then list the narrator, writer, director, actors, or other contributors, as necessary; the network; the local station and city, if any; and the broadcast date. If you cite a particular person's work, begin the entry with that person's name. If you cite a particular episode, include any title, in quotation marks, before the program's title. If the program is part of a series, include the series title (not underlined, italicized, or in quotation marks) before the network.

"Los Angeles: Silenced Partner." City Confidential. Narr. Paul Winfield. Arts and Entertainment Network. 25 Sept. 2003.

Newman, Paul, perf. Our Town. By Thornton Wilder. Masterpiece Theatre. PBS. WNET, New York. 5 Oct. 2003.



Begin with the name of the composer, performer, or conductor, depending on whose work you are citing. Next give the title of the recording, underlined or italicized. End with the manufacturer, a comma, and the year of issue. If you are not citing a compact disc, give the medium (such as Audiocassette or LP) before the manufacturer. If you are citing a particular song, include its title, in quotation marks, before the title of the recording.

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Bach: Violin Concertos. Perf. Itzhak Perlman and Pinchas Zukerman. English Chamber Orchestra. EMI, 2002.

Massive Attack. "Future Proof." 100th Window. Virgin, 2003.



When you are not citing a specific published version, first give the composer's name, followed by the title. Underline or italicize the title of an opera, a ballet, or a piece of instrumental music that is identified by name (such as Don Giovanni or Pastoral Symphony). However, do not underline, italicize, or enclose in quotation marks the form, number, and key when used to identify an instrumental composition (e.g., Symphony No. 95 in C Minor).

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni, K527.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Symphony No. 41 in C Major, K551.

To cite a published score, first list the composer's name, followed by the title, underlined or italicized. Be sure to capitalize the abbreviations No. and Op. If you wish to include the date when the musical composition was written, do so immediately following the title. End with the publication information.

Schoenberg, Arnold. Chamber Symphony No. 1 for 15 Solo Instruments, Op. 9. 1906. New York: Dover, 2002.



List the speaker, the title in quotation marks, the name of the sponsoring institution or group, the place, and the date. If the speech is untitled, use a label such as Lecture or Keynote speech.

Eugenides, Jeffrey. Lecture. Portland Arts and Lectures. Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall, Portland, OR. 30 Sept. 2003.



List the title, other appropriate details (such as composer, writer, performer, or director), the place, and the date. If you cite a particular person's work, begin the entry with that person's name.

Anything Goes. By Cole Porter. Perf. Klea Blackhurst. Shubert Theater, New Haven. 7 Oct. 2003.



List the artist; the work's title, underlined or italicized; the name of the museum or other location; and the city. If you want to include the date the work was created, add it after the title.

Kahlo, Frida. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair. 1940. Museum of Mod. Art, New York.



Cite a map or chart as you would a book with an unknown author, adding the label Map or Chart.

California. Map. Chicago: Rand, 2002.



Name the item or organization being advertised, add the word Advertisement, and then supply the standard information about the source in which the ad appears.

Microsoft. Advertisement. Harper's Oct. 2003: 2-3.



List the artist's name; the title (if any) of the cartoon or comic strip, in quotation marks; the label Cartoon or Comic strip; and the usual publication information.

Lewis, Eric. "The Unpublished Freud." Cartoon. New Yorker 11 Mar. 2002: 80.



Bedford/St. Martin's   |   About This Book   |   Composition   |   Catalog   |   Order a Book   |   Contact Us   |   Tech Support